Friday, May 22, 2020

Research Paper on Global Positioning System

Research Paper on Global Positioning System Abstract Irrespective of time, location, and whether, Global Position System provides unparalleled range of services to commercial military and consumer applications. Majority of these services enables airborne, land, and sea users to know their exact velocity, location, and time whenever and wherever on Earth. The development and capabilities of the GPS technology have rendered obsolete and impractical, other traditional positioning and well-known navigation systems and technologies such as magnetic compasses, radio-based devices, and chronometers among others. Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites, 21 of which are active while three (3) are spares and are located at an altitude of 10600 miles above the surface of the earth (El-Rabbany, 2002). GPS receivers on the ground is fitted with computers that are capable of triangulating its own sense after obtaining bearings from the other three (4) of the four (4) GPS satellites located in the same horizon. GPS segments are categorize d into three distinct segments that include space segment, control segment, and user segment. Global Positioning systems perform an array of functions on land, in air, or at sea. There are specific features that make GPS systems be attractive. These includes the ability to provide high positioning accuracies, the capability to determine accurate time and velocity accuracies, readily available signals in any part of the world, the free services at no charge, and all all-weather service delivery system (Andrews, Weill, and Grewal, 2007). Despite the above advantages, a number of challenges that still impede the transmission of signals still exist within the limits of GPS technologies. Majority of these challenges includes errors such as inaccuracies associated with the reported location of satellites (orbital errors), receiver clock errors, signal multipath, and number of visible satellites, which can affect position reading or impede signal reception. Global Positioning System Irrespective of time, location, and whether, Global Position System provides unparalleled range of services to commercial military and consumer applications. Majority of these services enables airborne, land, and sea users to know their exact velocity, location, and time whenever and wherever on Earth. The development and capabilities of the GPS technology have rendered obsolete and impractical, other traditional positioning and well-known navigation systems and technologies such as magnetic compasses, radio-based devices, and chronometers among others. Twenty-four (24) GPS satellites are strategically located 10, 600 miles from Earth and they are in circular orbits with each other (El-Rabbany, 2002). The orbital period is 12 hours, and satellites are distributed in six orbital planes with equally spaced angles. Out of the 24 GPS satellites, twenty-one (21) are active while three (3) are spaces. The GPS satellites are spaced in such a manner that four (4) GPS satellites will always b e beyond the horizon. In terms of structure and composition, each GPS satellite is equipped with an atomic clock, a computer, and a radio. Each radio understands its own clock and orbit thereby enabling it to broadcast continuously any changes in time and position. For instance, any minor corrections are made on each day after each GPS satellite verifies its own sense of position and time with other stations located on the ground. GPS receivers on the ground are fitted with computers that are capable of triangulating its own sense after obtaining bearings from the other three (4) of the four (4) GPS satellites located in the same horizon (El-Rabbany, 2002). The display screen on GPS receivers shows a map whereby the position of the object can be drawn from the map. Identification of geographic positions and altitude becomes possible if signals from the fourth satellite are receivable. Interestingly, the receivers are capable of calculating direction and speed during movements, and this capability enables navigators to estimate the arrival times to specified locations. Readings in most receivers are obtained in the form of geographic positions, that is, latitude and longitude. Finally, advanced and specialized GPS receivers can be programmed to store vital data that are usable in map making and as well important for Geographic Information Systems. Project Objectives This report limits itself to the discussion of the Global Positioning Systems, their structure, operations, and usefulness in different sectors and applications across the globe. This report aims to fulfill the following objectives: Explain what is meant by Global Position Systems and other GPS terminologies and as well shed some light on its history Discuss the structure and operations of GPS system Explain the different structures of GPS segments Outline the primary functions of GPS systems and technologies Examine the accuracy of GPS information and if possible, identify sources of errors that can affect the accuracy of GPS information Identify the primary users of GPS applications and other necessary conditions that should be fulfilled when purchasing GPS systems Identify other competitor versions of GPS systems Global Positioning Systems and their History Global Positioning Systems (GPS) refers to satellite-based radio-positioning systems and time-transfer systems that provide three-dimensional course, position, and time information to suitably equipped users. The radios sends, receives, and provides time and location information at any time, place, and weather provided the GPS radios are not obstructed from the four other orbital satellites. Other valuable information displayed by GPS technologies includes velocity and altitude. The U.S. Department of Defense designs, finances, and operates GPS systems while the USA owns the GPS technology. Other than the unparalleled advantages offered to the military, GPS systems have proven to be of fundamental benefits to the civilian community whereby GPS applications are used in rapidly expanding sets of applications. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites that are in circular orbits around the Earth with the orbital period of approximately 12 hours (Kaplan, 1996). The satellit es are distributed across six orbital planes that are equally spaced in angles. Each Global Positioning Satellite is built with an atomic clock, a computer, and a radio The history of GPS systems can be traced to 1973 when the United States Department of Defense began to develop a 24-hour, all-weather global positioning system to provide support for the positioning requirements of US armed forces. The GPS was formerly referred to as the NAVSTAR (Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging). Ideally, the GPS system was designed as a form of replacement to already large navigational system that was already in use, and as well, the need to obtain reliability and survivability for navigation systems in handling a wide variety of dynamics (Kaplan, 1996; Parkinson, and Spilker 1996). Other motives that initiated the development of GPS Technology included the need for a system to service unlimited users, and a system that does not require the transmission of signals from users to satellites. Eventually, it led to the design of a system that surpassed the intended concepts such that a one-way system was developed to transmit signals with no receiving functions. This function was essential in that enemies could not detect signals being relayed within the confines of the military. Additionally, the developed system used microwave transmission technology, was equipped with the latest atomic clocks, could transmit signals regardless of the prevailing weather conditions, and provided accurate navigation and positioning details (Parkinson, and Spilker 1996). Due to the relatively cheap cost and inexpensive equipment, the GPS technology was availed freely to the civilian population. Structure and operations of the GPS As earlier mentioned, the Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites, 21 of which are active while three (3) are spares and are located at an altitude of 10600 miles above the surface of the earth (El-Rabbany, 2002). The satellites are strategically arranged in orbits such that at any time of the day, at least four satellites are visible above the earth’s horizon. The receivers on the ground detect their positions in reference to the GPS satellites. The primary navigation principle is obtained based on the measurement of pseudoranges between the four satellites and the user (Seeber, 2003). Equally, the stations located on the ground provide precise monitoring of the orbit at every level of the satellite and measures the travel time signals transmitted between the four satellites and the receiver. In turn, the accurate direction, location, and speed is the measure. Structures of GPS Segments GPS segments are categorized into three distinct segments that include control segment, user segment, and space segment. The space segment contains at least 24 GPS satellites that follow a specific pattern when orbiting the earth (Seeber, 2003). The satellites travel at an approximate speed of 7,000 miles per hour, and the satellites are spaced such that at least four GPS satellites can send signals to a GPS receiver located anywhere on earth. From each GPS receiver, coded radio signals are sent to earth and each signal contains particular information. The information includes the particular satellite sending the information, the exact position of the satellite, date and time the signal was sent, and whether the satellite was performing properly. Satellites use solar energy, but they are also powered by backup batteries in the absence of solar energy (Seeber, 2003). Majority of the satellites have been built to last for approximately 10 years after which they are replaced. Monitoring , control, and replacement of space satellites and GPS technology is done by the US Department of Defense. The control segment entails constant monitoring of the health of satellites, the orbital configuration, and intensity of signals. The control segment is further subdivided into ground antennas, monitor stations, and master control station. There are at least six unmanned monitor stations all over the earth, each station is in constantly receiving, and monitoring information from GPS satellites and at the same time relays the clock and orbital information to master control stations (MCS). Similarly, Master Control Stations make precise corrections of orbital and clock information received from monitor stations. It sends the corrected information to ground antennas (Seeber, 2003). Last, the Ground Antennas are responsible for receiving corrected clock and orbital information from the Master Control Station and in turn, relays the corrected information to appropriate satellites. Finally, the user segment of the GPS systems is made up of GPS receivers, which are responsible for collecting and processing signals received from GPS satellites that are in the range. It then uses the collected information to find and display the location, time, speed, and altitude of the receiver (Seeber, 2003). No information is transmitted from the receiver to the satellites. Primary Functions of Global Positioning Systems Global Positioning systems perform an array of functions on land, in air, or at sea. There are specific features that make GPS systems be attractive. These includes the ability to provide high positioning accuracies, the capability to determine accurate time and velocity accuracies, readily available signals in any part of the world, the free services at no charge, and all all-weather service delivery system (Andrews, Weill, and Grewal, 2007). Above all, GPS technologies provide accurate position information in three dimensions (vertical and horizontal information). Currently, it is estimated that the number of civilian users exceeds the number of military users. In light of these characteristics, the global sectors are exceedingly utilizing the services of GPS technologies. GPS systems were initially designed for military purposes and they have remained significant in facilitating military operations. Military ships, aircraft, tanks, and equipment use GPS technology for navigation purposes, provision of close air support, improving weapon technology, and determining target destination. In agriculture, GPS technologies are used in precision farming to monitor the process of applying fertilizer and pesticides in addition to proving accurate location information that enable farmers to plow, map fields, harvest, and identify potential disease areas or weed infestation. In the aviation industry, aircraft and airplane pilots utilize GPS technology to identify en route navigation and airport approaches. Additionally, the accurate location of aircraft can be identified from any place on or near the earth’s surface through the help of Satellite navigation (Andrews, Weill, and Grewal, 2007). In environmental management, GPS technology has been utilized in surveying disaster prone areas, and as well in mapping the movement of environmental phenomena such as hurricanes or forest fires. Interestingly, GPS technology can also be used in the identification of locations that have been altered or submerged by natural disasters. Another area that utilizes GPS technology is Ground transportation. GPS technologies are used in vehicle tracking systems, in-vehicle navigation systems, and in automatic vehicle location systems. Majority of these systems shows the location of vehicles on an electronic sheet map thereby enabling drivers to track their exact locations and as well, get an overview of other destinations. Other systems are designed to automatically design a route and provide turn-by-turn directions to provide guidance to drivers. Furthermore, GPS technologies facilitates the process of monitoring and planning routes for emergency vehicles and delivery vans. Rail transport systems also use GPS technologies to estimate precise locations of trains, manage the flow of traffic, prevent collision of trains, and in the estimation of time, speed, and distance covered by trains (Andrews, Weill, and Grewal, 2007). In marine systems, GPS technologies assist in marine navigation, surveying underwater, routing traff ic, locating navigational hazards, and marine mapping. Moreover, commercial fishing fleets use GPS technology to identify and navigate to areas with optimum fishing opportunities and as well to track the migration of fishes. GPS technologies are also used for public safety such as locating emergency areas, and in recreation for finding bearings, estimating distance, time, and in returning to the original locations. Space science also utilizes GPS technologies to track and control the behavior and motions of satellites in orbit. Space shuttles and future rockets also depend on GPS technologies. Finally yet important, field of surveying heavily utilizes GPS technologies in both complex and basic tasks such as development of urban infrastructures and defining property lines respectively. Furthermore, mapping roads, rail systems, and surveying land maps is possible with the utilization of GPS technologies. Accuracy of Global Position Systems The accuracy of GPS systems depends with the precision of signals that emanate from GPS satellites to GPS receivers. Additionally, the number of obstacles that can obscure your receiver from the GPS systems are critical in the determining the precision and accuracy of information obtained from GPS systems. The types of receivers also play a significant role in the determination of GPS accuracy. Majority of GPS receivers have an accuracy range of +/- 10m. Other accurate forms of GPS receivers include Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS). The accuracy of most GPS systems is affected by errors. Common sources of errors to GPS systems include inaccuracies associated with the reported location of satellites (orbital errors), receiver clock errors, signal multipath that makes GPS signals bounce off objects, and number of visible satellites, which can affect position reading or impede signal reception (Tsui, 2005). Satellite Shading also affects the accuracy of the information. For instance, the ideal satellite geometry is achieved when satellites are widely located at angles that are relative to one another. Ideal Characteristics of Global Positioning Systems In order to obtain accurate information from Global Positioning Systems, specific factors should be put into consideration during the acquisition of GPS tools. First, the GPS tool should be durable to ensure that it is capable of withstanding rigors work and continued usage. Second, the ability of the GPS tool to obtain and maintain the most reliable signal strength despite the existence of obstructions such as the location, changing weather conditions, and the sensitivity of the receiver (Tsui, 2005). Third, GPS components consume a lot of power and therefore, battery life is a critical factor to consider during the acquisition of GPS equipment. Other noteworthy features include the portability ranges, cellular signal reliability, the length of acquiring GPS signals from satellites, configuration complexities, and ease of use among others. GPS Competitors The closest competitor of GPS technology is the Wide Are Augmentation System (WAAS) that consists of satellites and ground stations capable of providing accurate positioning. The WAAS technology was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A good example of WAAS is the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS). The WAAS program was specifically developed to assist pilots is determining direct en route paths, identifying precision approach services to runways, and to ensure maximum capacity and safety improvements in all weather conditions (Tsui, 2005). WAAS users are required to have WAAS-capable receivers to enable them obtain signals in areas covered by WAAS satellites. Results and Conclusions The analysis and discussion of Global Positioning System concepts has revealed that GPS technology is a force in the force. Perhaps the system designers had different intentions when developing and designing GPS technologies but these applications have added to the versatility of usage of GPS not only as a system for estimating the precise positioning of objects but also in the provision of accurate and reliable navigation information. Irrespective of time, location, and whether, Global Position System provides unparalleled range of services to commercial military and consumer applications. Majority of these services enables airborne, land, and sea users to know their exact velocity, location, and time whenever and wherever on Earth. Indeed, the GPS technology supports numerous positioning and navigation applications that satisfy a multitude of user needs. At this moment, the widespread usage of GPS applications in different sectors of the economy makes it exceedingly difficult to th ink of a life without Global Positioning Systems. It is evident that creating a complex system such as the GPS technology is not an easy task and this can be proven from the few competitors of GPS technology. GPS technologies and systems are used in different sectors of society. This includes road and rail transportation, marine navigation, agriculture, the airline industry, space science, recreation, military, and in the provision of public safety among others. Information and signals relayed by GPS systems are safe and reliable thereby making GPS technology the ideal navigation and positioning equipment. The evaluation and analysis of the structure, operation, and application of GPS systems have shown that maintaining the GPS technology is a complex activity given the nature of the GPS technologies. Notwithstanding these complexities, GPS services are maintained and offered free of charge thereby making it available for an unlimited number of users and applications. Global Positioning Systems have a potential future judging from the current technological advancements. Virtually, every communication and navigation device is manufactured or fitted with a GPS receiver. From basic consumer electronic products such as mobile phones to complex navigation and military tools such as ships, aircrafts, and weapons, are both built with GPS technologies (Tsui, 2005). Importantly, the Global Positioning System is also advancing at an increasing rate and therefore, more is still to be expected with regard to the future of GPS tools and applications. Despite the above advantages, a number of challenges that still impede the transmission of signals still exist within the limits of GPS technologies. Majority of these challenges includes errors such as inaccuracies associated with the reported location of satellites (orbital errors), receiver clock errors, signal multipath, and number of visible satellites, which can affect position reading or impede signal reception. These errors have an effect of affecting the signal strength and in turn, leading to inaccurate positioning and navigation information. Nonetheless, these challenges can be avoided by ensuring that GPS receivers and equipment are evaluated to test their reliability. Factors that must be considered during the evaluation of GPS systems include durability, the capability to obtain and maintain the most reliable signal strength, and power consumption (Tsui, 2005). As such, a number of procedures can be followed in evaluating GPS tools and equipment. These includes conducti ng an evaluation and testing exercise to ascertain the ideal characteristics, identifying the credibility of vendors, examining the legal considerations, and lastly, identifying ways of overcoming the challenges. Overall, there is potential in GPS technology provided corrective measures be taken and as well, there is the need to conduct immense research and innovation in GPS technology to ensure its sustainability. References Andrews, A., P., Weill, L. R., and Grewal, S. G. (2007). Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration. John Wiley Sons El-Rabbany, A. (2002). Introduction to GPS: the Global Positioning System. Artech House Kaplan, E. D. ed. (1996). Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications. Boston: Artech House Publishers. Parkinson, B. W., and Spilker. J. J. eds. (1996). Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice. Volumes I and II. Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. Seeber, G. (2003). Satellite Geodesy (2nd Edition). Walter de Gruyter Inc. Tsui, B. J. (2005). Fundamentals of Global Positioning System receivers: A software Approach. John Wiley and Sons

Friday, May 8, 2020

Why do teenagers indulge in alcoholism and smoking

1 October 2013 Why do teenagers indulge in alcoholism and smoking? In today’s society many teenagers are introduced to new ideas every day. Teenage years often include adjusting to new people, and experimenting and trying out many unfamiliar ideas. As a teenager some maybe naà ¯ve and not fully think of consequences, and or long term effects of indulging in these type of activities. The cause for teenagers indulging in alcoholism and smoking can be many reasons. For some teens, peer pressure, curiosity, and also stress can all play major roles in why one might choose to indulge in alcoholism and smoking. Alcoholism is an addiction to the consumption of alcoholic liquor or the mental illness and compulsive behavior resulting from†¦show more content†¦They may turn to these two activities because of the feeling it gives them. When one is stressed out they may feel like they just want a place of comfort, or a peaceful place in their mind that makes them feel good. For some to feel thi s way they turn to activities such as drinking, and smoking. Every year more than 300,000 kids under the age of 18 start smoking. Also, some researchers from â€Å"BBC News† stated that alcohol and smoking combined, greatly reduce the sperm count of a young male. The more they smoke and drink the lower count, combined with marijuana there is a very small chance of getting a girl pregnant. Researchers from â€Å"BBC News† also stated that only 17% of kids under 18 years old indulge in tobacco products. Young people consuming all kinds of substances is drastically growing each and every year. For some teens peer pressure, curiosity, and also stress can all play major roles in why one might choose to indulge in alcoholism and smoking. Many teens are involved in activities such as alcoholism and smoking in their everyday lives. Not realizing the effects these two can have on teenagers is a problem that many do not think about. These are the many reasons why teenagers indul ge in activities such as alcoholism and smoking in todayShow MoreRelatedWhy Are Lgbt Students Committing Suicide More Than Non Transgender Students?1559 Words   |  7 Pagesthat perturbed my mind was Why are LGBT students committing suicide more than non-LGBT students? What factors are responsible for the massive suicide? Lesbians, gays, bisexual and transgender and heterosexual people are all members of a community, however, the society finds it difficult to accept them as members of the society instead they are being discriminated against. This makes the LGBT teenager to indulge in some malicious act such drinking alcohol, smoking, taking drugs and sleeping aroundRead MoreWhat Is Conformity?2510 Words   |  10 Pagesoffer informative outlook in relation to conformity, together with factors that influence adolescents. Many individuals argue that the tendency of conforming tends to decrease as an individual ages. It is obvious that adolescents together with teenagers happen to be affected more with conformity issues. One of the main common activities that adolescents tend to conform to happens to be substance abuse. Alcohol is one of the common used intoxicants by adolescents in the world. The rates of alcoholRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Abuse On Our Life3393 Words   |  14 Pages16 -21 years old, we must first understand the underlying factors that contribute to why teenagers and young adults decide to take drugs to begin with. Firstly, what does the word â€Å"Drug† actually mean? According to the World Health Organisation, a drug is a natural or synthetic substance which affects the functioning or structure of the physiological processes in the human body. These drugs also include smoking and the consumption of alcohol. These drugs can lead to â€Å"drug abuse† over a period of Read MoreSubstance Abuse15082 Words   |  61 Pageswithdrawal symptoms are produced. This withdrawal syndrome is experienced as sickness, stomach upset and muscular pain. Hallucinations and convulsions may also occur. EXPLAIN WHY ALCOHOL IS A DRUG Alcohol is a drug because it affects the body tissues and as a result influences behaviour. BRIEFLY OUTLINE THREE REASONS WHY PEOPLE BECOME DEPENDENT ON DRUGS People become dependent on drugs because of curiosity, believing drugs will improve mental processes. Fashionable. Thinking they are not addictiveRead MoreIncreasing Crimes7023 Words   |  29 Pageslevel, and due to the extremely harsh penalties that may be imposed for these offenses, it is important to work with a lawyer who can handle cases in federal court. ROOT CAUSES FOR INCREASING CRIME RATES: To a certain extent poverty and unemployment do have their contributions to the increasing crime rates. However, it is not easy to explain away most of the crimes purely based on such simplistic reasoning. Here we examine some of the root causes behind rising crime rates. * INCOMPLETE EDUCATIONRead MoreSocial Networking Sites-Boon/Bane15517 Words   |  63 Pageslives, there are advantages and disadvantages that come along with them. For example, you can make a friend from Timbuktu and on the flip side your account can get hacked and you can find yourself in a big mess. A recent research revealed that teenagers tend to hide the real stuff by using code language you may never understand. Teens are basically using them to stop parents and employers from judging them on the basis of their social activities such as partying, drinking and drugs. Instead of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Discussion/ Technology and Operations Management Free Essays

International Project management is very essential to control resource usage to ensure quality productions. International projects involve many people with different cultures and backgrounds. It is therefore necessary to have management system that harmonizes the cultural, social, political and economic differences amongst them. We will write a custom essay sample on Discussion/ Technology and Operations Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now Project manager should be tactical and wise in decision making to ensure every project member is well catered for and maximum utilization of the resources is achieved to meet project objectives (Kwak, 2002). Development of an international project management plan in workplace International project development environments are affected with many factors originating from within and outside the development environments by nature. International project development plan may be affected by cultural, social, political and economic factors and so the management plan should consider all these factors (Kwak, 2002). The international project management plan should consider all possible physical factors in the countries involved for mitigation. In addition, the laws and regulations governing different countries should be considered to ensure political stability. With the political factors solved, there will be improved returns on investments due to reduction in risks resulting from uncertainties in the international project development environment. In any business, there has to be legal requirements to be met. An international project development management system has to meet all the legal requires in terms of government policies and regulations. These factors may affect prices, exchange rates in the markets, taxations and even financial management systems. This may lead to some people losing their jobs and others incurring losses in the business. As a business right, political factors should be well managed to ensure market stability for the market users (Kwak, 2002). Cultural factors such as style or values should be considered when developing an international project development management system. Since some countries are not aware of the some cultural resources in other countries, assistance should be provided to facilitate the international projects development process. Cultural value should be put into consideration when designing the management system. When planning for an international project management system, technological factors should be put in to consideration. This is because technological designs and level of use vary from country to country (Kwak, 2002). This may lead to varied participation levels in a project and so a project manager should consider the variation to successfully manage a project. Employing project management techniques to skillfully and ethically lead complex international projects in organizations Project management is a technique through which projects can be evaluated to encourage soft skills application in contrast with the hard skills to achieve the project goals. Soft skills are mostly based on the technical resources required to carryout a project such as stakeholders’ contributions, collaboration or teamwork, organizational behaviors and management strategies (Marques, 2005). According to Harold (2005), for a successful project management in an organization, skillful and ethical techniques for a success in a complex or large organization are as follows. First, there has to be process integrations in the organizations. Integration of processes involves forming teamwork or collaborations in a project to ensure every member’s requirements are catered for in the product design. In addition, teamwork ensures success because of improved participation amongst members. Second, incorporation of cultural values at the design stages of a management system. Incorporation of the cultural values in multicultural organization will ensure equitable presentation of all members rights and therefore not to lower their dignity or abuse their rights (Harold, 2005). Third, information and support managements, which includes monitoring and assessing the communication systems to capture everyone’s views in terms of comments or suggestions. Forth, trainings should be provided to all members of an organization particularly in technology use to enable them to embrace technology use. In many occasions, management well trained employees in an organization are highly empowered and they participate fully in all areas within the organization to improve productivity. Fifth, behavioral excellence that involves instilling ethical values to the employees. Employees have to know their rights and how to protect them in the organization. Management system should provide fro a way in which petitions in the working environment can be solved fairly to create unity and harmony amongst workers (Harold, 2005). Diversity cross-cultural perspectives, Team building skills, Decision making in the workplace In a multicultural environment, there has to be change management, which enables new members in the organization to be induced well and successful fit in the new working environment. Decision-making based production methods should be put in to considerations to avoid resource wastages and satisfy all internal requirements in an organization. Lean manufacturing should be adopted to only produce when needed to minimize resource consumption in the organization (Joomla, 2009). In addition to lean manufacturing, project management should be carried out in all projects in an organization. This is to ensure quality performances to continuously improve in productions. Project management will also ensure cost effective use of resources particularly in a large and complex organization. In diverse and multicultural organizations, conflicts are likely to happen due to the cultural and environmental differences. Conflict management system should be availed to provide fair judgments to the organizational members. Teamwork or collaboration should be encouraged to facilitate decision-making and enhance innovativeness (Joomla, 2009). Enhanced decision making and innovativeness will lead to quality production through making good plans for investments. Innovation may also lead to improvements in the supply chain levels. A well-managed supply chain model can be improved through innovation or technology use to eliminate non-value adding processes to production processes. Conclusion Project management is very fundamental in all projects whether in large or small organizations. International project management is just as necessary as the local ones (Marques, 2005). In multicultural organizations, the employees have to be trained on various social, cultural, political and economic factors to ensure uniformity during a joint project. Project managers are required to consider the cultural factors when designing a management structure for all the members to be accommodated and be free to fully participate in the organizational tasks. Reference: Harold, K. (2005). Advanced Project Management best Practices on Implementation, 2nd ed, John Wiley Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey Joomla. (2009). Certification, Innovation, Decision Making, Project Management, Team Building, Conflict Management: Certification Programs for Educational and Business Organizations Standards or Courses Custom Designed for your Organization. Joomla. Viewed on 13th June 2009, Available at http://endeavourprojects.com/Joomla Kwak, Y. H. (2002). Critical Success Factors in International Development Project Management. Viewed on 13th June 2009. Available at http://home.gwu.edu/~kwak/Kwak_CIB65_2002.pdf Marques, G. M. (2005). Discussion of the distinguishing features of Project Management in the 21st Century. Viewed on 13th June 2009. Available at http://www.caaei.org/anexos/65.doc How to cite Discussion/ Technology and Operations Management, Essays Discussion/ Technology and Operations management Free Essays Customization is here to stay and has become part of us. An achievement begins with strategies that know what to modify instead of only dealing with difficulties in management. The Working together of both the operations and marketing departments improves results (Orlando, 2007). We will write a custom essay sample on Discussion/ Technology and Operations management or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Booz Company (2008) lack of coordination by the marketing department and project management in doing some particular activities sets prices too high. This in turn affects the performance of customization strategies. Relationship between project management and marketing management The o relationship between project management and marketing management is the objectives need to be the same. Marketing’s main objective is to meet the demand and supply of consumers without thinking of prices. The project manager is supposed to find a way to minimize these costs. (Booz Company, 2008). They need to come to some level of agreement in terms of setting objectives so that they set specific objectives that reduces costs and keeps consumers satisfied. The other relationship between marketers and operations is cutting costs and satisfying consumers’ needs. There seems to be a conflict between project management and marketing department. Instead of cooperating with each other, they are at loggerheads. Marketing wants many varieties to choose from while operations want to make those changes at low costs. The other relationship between the two departments is that they are reimbursed differently. Marketing revolves around unit sales while project management main concern is about reducing manufacturing cost. Project managers and marketers do not have the same interests. This factor can strain there relationship between them. Project managers are technicians and doers. While marketers do not deal with specific issues (Booz Company, 2008). Other relationship that they share between them is reduction of costs. When project managers, cut down costs and do not consult marketers’ then that becomes a problem. Relevance of project management in the work force Project management and marketing management are important to each other and there is need for harmonization for the two when working together. One department cannot do without the other, they are essential to each other (Booz company,2008). The operations person assumes that, the sales people do not appreciate the cost factors while the sales people assume that the operations people do not appreciate that consumers are everything (Booz company, 2008). There is need for a truce because in the event that they do not consult with each other it can bring to much variety of goods or cause costs to escalate (Booz company, 2008). Another importance is the involvement of top leadership in encouraging dialogue between the two departments. In addition, there needs to be a meeting where both, project management and marketing department discuss about strategies to create teams that are cross -functional. The relevance of finding a common ground to discuss these issues is of great importance as it attributes to actions that solely base on costing analysis (Booz Company, 2008). What is apparent is what choices are made and when to make them. The importance is to know the main objective of your organization’s purpose, as this will boost productions as well as marketing productivity. Appreciating both the real price and worth of the goods is important (Booze Company, 2008). Organizations should centre there attention on customer understanding and set customizable elements into specific packages as an alternative of giving thousands of variations (Booze Company, 2008). Incorporating strategic partners is essential in investigating costs productions (Orlando, 2007). Conclusion It is therefore apparent that project management helps in reducing cost productions, in the case of Egol, Booz company, (2008) remembers a situation where he modified nearly all the machinery in trying to please the consumers wants because they had specific requirements. If consumers are overwhelmed with goods to buy, they get so confused until they do not but at all. If here was an operational management they would have stopped the over indulgence. Reference Booz Company. (2008).The challenge of customization: Bringing Operations and Marketing together the global commercial consulting firm. Retrieved on 22nd July 2009. Available at http://www.strategy-business.com/press/sbkw2/sbkwarticle/sbkw040616?tid=230pg= Orlando, F. S. (2007). Centered collaboration2007, Retrieved on 22nd   July 2009. Available at http://www.gmaonline.org/events/2007/isld/presentations/overcomingc.pdf. How to cite Discussion/ Technology and Operations management, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Knight without Blemish and Without Reproach The Color of Virtue

If there is something that the English Middle Age literature is definitely famous for, these are the numerous legends about knights, beautiful damsels and King Arthur; and, one must give these legends some credit for keeping its audience well in their seats for several centuries long.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Knight without Blemish and Without Reproach: The Color of Virtue specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it seems rather unfair that the legend of such a peculiar historical character as Sir Gawain has been in the shadow of more popular ones like Sir Galahad or King Arthur; just as compelling and, for that matter, more complex story of the knight who in one kind of sources is portrayed as the saving grace, and in another as a lady-killer is definitely worth taking a closer look at, which the story about Sir Gawain and the Green Knight will help in. The work belongs to the genre of poetry. Althou gh there is no actual rhyme in the given piece, the way it is structured clearly shows that this is a poem; for instance, the line â€Å"At the head sat Bishop Baldwin as Arthur’s guest of honor† (Armitage 27) breaks, and the sentence continues on the next line; the given manner of writing is typical for poetry with obvious elements of a narrative and dramatic style. Indeed, too short to be epic, it still has the tension of drama (the line â€Å"exchanging views† (27), for instance, bears a lot of hidden innuendoes) and the pace of a third-person narration. Like any other poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight has its evident prosodic elements; however, they are quite different from what is defined as poetry today. For instance, as it has been already mentioned, there is no rhyme (â€Å"himself –views – Guinevre† (Armitage 27)), nor is there any specific meter: â€Å"And still he stands there just being himself† (Armitage 27) does not fit into any of the existing meters. However, written in the era of the â€Å"Alliterative Revival†, it does have a lot of alliterations in every line. Indeed, taking any line, one can see the repetitive pattern: in â€Å"and at Arthur’s other side sits Agrawain the Hard Hand†, there are three clear-cut instances of alliteration.Advertising Looking for essay on british literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More First of all, the sound â€Å"a† is stressed: â€Å"and at Arthur’s†, â€Å"Agrawain† (Armitage 27); then, â€Å"s† is emphasized: â€Å"side sits†; finally, the harsh â€Å"h† sound echoes in the end of the line: â€Å"Hard Hand†. Another instance of alliteration, â€Å"Bishop Baldwin† makes it clear that this stylistic device was intended (Armitage 27). The poem also has several peculiar symbols to consider. In the given excerpt, Sir Gawain is the symbol himself – the symbol of the whole idea of knighthood, with its codes of honor, luxurious feasts and specific hierarchy. Mentioning the way the guests are seated, the author stresses the latter, showing the specific relationships between the characters. For instance, the fact that Guinevere sits next to Gawain: â€Å"Good Sir Gawain is seated by Guinevere† (37) points at the fact that there might be tension between these characters and that they are closely related to each other. However, mentioning all these characters, the real author of the story stays in the shadow, which makes the narration a true legend, the ancient myth, the veracity of which cannot be checked, and that adds certain charm to the poem. Although the author mentions the names of actual people who did exist, according to the historical record, it is rather hard to pin the actual year when the events took place. Known as the XIV-century tale, this piece is practically timeless. Ne vertheless, the elements of the given poem can relate to a number of other literature works of the given time period, mostly owing to the legendary names mentioned in the excerpt, such as King Arthur, Guinevere, and the rest of the characters.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Knight without Blemish and Without Reproach: The Color of Virtue specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the whole idea of knighthood which the extract is shot through relates well to most of the literature works of the given time slot. Indeed, the idea of describing the life of â€Å"the nobles† (Armitage 27) is quite common for the given epoch. Despite being a translation of the original Middle English poem, the given piece is still very impressive. It helps create the atmosphere of the famous Camelot and imagine the people who lived there in the most graphic way. Telling not only about the history of England, but also emp hasizing the significance of fraternity and togetherness which ruled in the XIV century Camelot, the given poem truly is a work of art. Therefore, it is clear that the story of Sir Gawain is typical for its time period and reflects the standard set of values, yet it manages to convey the traditional messages about purity in a specific way. It is quite peculiar that the poem is not preachy in sharing the moral values of the Middle Ages with the readers; in addition, there is little of the self-appraise element in the poem, which is also quite unusual for the time period of the Knights of the Round Table. With its story which is easy to track and the pace which is easy to follow, the poem makes a perfect specimen of the English Middle Age literature. Works Cited Armitage, Simon. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York City, NY: W. W. Norton Company, 2007. Print.Advertising Looking for essay on british literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This essay on The Knight without Blemish and Without Reproach: The Color of Virtue was written and submitted by user Adam D. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The secrets to writing effective subheadings

The secrets to writing effective subheadings The secrets of effective subheadings Its easy to treat subheadings as a token afterthought once youve gone through the hard work of actually writing your document. But its worth paying more attention to them than that. They can be an effective tool in drawing your reader in to your full text or helping them find your most important points. Watch the video to find out how: Cant watch the video now? Heres the transcript: Guide the way with subheading signposts You know how it is. Youve written your document. Now you want people to read it (or what was the point?). You probably know no one wants to look at a big block of text, so you break it up. Good start. But thats not enough, is it? No, you also need signposts – like subheadings. Well, that looks better already. And subheadings dont just help your writing look good and your documents more inviting. They can work much harder than that. More on that in a minute. But first, a word of warning. Far too often, people write subheadings like these: Background Our experience Recommendations Background: What does that tell you about whats coming? Not much. Our experience: Is that specific? Not really. Recommendations: Are you engaged by this? Do you want to follow these signposts? Probably not. If youre trying to find your way in the world, a signpost will be no help at all if it doesnt actually tell you what its pointing to. And, just like signposts youd follow to get somewhere, your subheadings have to be specific. They have to tell your reader exactly whats ahead, to help them get where they need to go. Even better if your subheading signposts make the reader want to go there. For example: Background âžÅ"  What you told us Our experience âžÅ" 40 years in the business Recommmendations âžÅ" How well meet your aims So, what techniques can you use to inspire subheadings that not only draw your reader in but also lead them through your document? Well, remember: well-written subheadings can make your reader want to dive in. So try some of these techniques. Direct Interest Verbs Evoke curiosity with a question Insight (to expand on) Numbers Play on words (if appropriate) Short (ish) Make sure your subheadings are direct and to the point. Corporation tax rate reduced Say something that will be of interest to the reader. How to expand our customer base Try using verbs – remember, those are the ‘doing’ and ‘being’ words. Doing so sounds dynamic and might even encourage action in some cases. Industry achieves positive change Evoke curiosity with a question. Ready for the low-carbon future? Give an insight that you’ll expand on in the following section. Real estate to outperform Try including a number – a technique often used online, which lets your reader know exactly how much information to expect. Five ways to combat climate change And theres a PS You can use a play on words – but only if you think it’s appropriate to the tone of your document and the intended reader. Face the storm with catastrophe bonds And finally: remember to keep your subheadings shortish. They should be long enough to be meaningful but short enough to be understood and absorbed quickly. So, try some of these techniques for signposting your next document and see how far it takes you. To sum up Remember, the best subheadings will read like an overview of your document – but they should also be compelling enough to encourage readers to dive in to the main copy. If you write online content, like blog posts, remember that website visitors do tend to skim-read a page before deciding whether to stay on it. The right subheadings could help tip the balance in your favour. Help your readers navigate In an ideal world, your documents and emails would never be skim-read. But, realistically, some of your time-pressed colleagues or clients will have to do just that. In which case, well-chosen subheadings will at least give them a summary and help them quickly find the most relevant parts. Find your route Subheadings can also help you with your writing process: try coming up with them as part of the planning stage before you write the body of the document, when youre deciding the structure. Or, if you prefer, you could read through the summary your subheads make after youve finished the document to double-check its structure: did you pick the best route? You can then adjust the order if necessary (but dont forget to make sure the text still flows logically). Keep it appropriate Just like anything else you write, judge the suitability of your subheadings against the tone of the document and what you know about the reader. This post is an extract from a lesson in our online-learning programme, Emphasis 360, which is designed to transform your writing step by step, in practical, bite-sized lessons. You can try it out for free here.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Analog vs. Digital

Analog vs. Digital Analog vs. Digital Analog vs. Digital By Mark Nichol What’s the difference between analog and digital, and why is the latter word, which originally referred to fingers, now the antithesis of â€Å"hands-on†? An analog is something related to physical quantities (hence the name; analog comes from a Greek word meaning â€Å"proportion†): An analog clock, for example, shows the passage of time by measuring it with a â€Å"hand† that pivots on a central axis, while a measuring tape represents the length of a tangible phenomenon such as a room’s dimensions. By contrast, digital refers to a device’s reading of binary units, zeros and ones, to perform functions and to the storage of information as binary units rather than an analog recording medium such as magnetic ribbon. Ironically, however, digit stems from the Latin term digitus, meaning â€Å"finger† or â€Å"toe.† The path from appendages to algorithms involves the use of fingers to count, thus the extension of the definition of digit to â€Å"number below ten.† The use of zeros and tens as the basis of the on-off duality of binary computer systems led the technology to be referred to as digital technology. Indeed, the word bit, referring to the basic unit of digital information, is a contraction of the phrase â€Å"binary digit.† The adjective digital now refers both to something done or having to do with fingers (for example, â€Å"digital manipulation†) and something related to digitally rendered numbers, or to computerized data or to electronics. Two other terms with the same root word are digitalis, referring to a plant popularly known as the foxglove and to a medicine extracted from it, and prestidigitation, a sesquipedalian synonym for magic. Digitalis is a Latinized form of the German word fingerhut (â€Å"thimble†), because of the resemblance of the plant’s flowers to the sewing implement. Prestidigitation, meanwhile, is another Latin-looking invention influenced by prestige, which comes from the Latin word praestigiae, â€Å"juggler’s tricks.† (Prestige acquired a laudatory meaning and connotation only in the early twentieth century.) It’s a combination of the Italian word presto and digit hence, â€Å"quick fingers.† Analog, meanwhile, calls to mind its full-form predecessor analogue (which spelling for the adjectival form is also preferred in British English), which means â€Å"something similar.† An analogy is also a similarity, or it can refer to a correspondence or to another form of comparison. Analogous is the adjectival form. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:25 Subordinating ConjunctionsDifference between "Pressing" and "Ironing"Wood vs. Wooden

Sunday, February 16, 2020

High Dropout Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

High Dropout - Essay Example Parents are finding themselves helpless as they are not able to do anything about it. However, dropping out of school is not a random phenomenon. Every action has a reason behind it. The reason can be psychological, social or personal. To prevent students from leaving their education incomplete, it is a responsibility of the society and the educational institutes to find out the reason behind students dropping out of the school and work out an effective and permanent solution for it. If not taken care of on time, this problem can become a major obstacle in the progress of the country. This research is an attempt undertaken to understand the reason for the students dropping out of the school. Give balance The data shows that the proportion of undergraduates in the UK who failed to complete their first year at university increased by 0.3 per cent to 7.4 per cent in 2006-07, the year the government raised top-up fees to  £3,000. (http://www.studentloans.co.uk/news/2009). In England, 7.1 per cent failed to complete their first year, compared with 6.7 per cent prior to the student fees increase.(ibid) In contrast, between 15 per cent and 19 per cent of students at the universities of Greenwich, Sunderland, Bolton and London Metropolitan failed to complete their first year, while one in five studying at the University of Ulster dropped out (ibid). I have a personal experience of this problem. I have two brothers who left university and caused great pain for my parents, but when they grew up they realized that the university was the most important thing in their life. Even though we know that â€Å"university is the best thing†, why we drop out of college? That fact is that, we drop out from the University or college for many reasons. A