Saturday, August 31, 2019

The New Yorker July 21, 2008 Cover: Satire or Racist?

On the fourth week of July 2008, people were astonished as The New Yorker Magazine graced the stands. The cover page showed Barry Blitt’s illustration depicting Barrack Obama wearing a traditional Muslim outfit with a white cap or taqiyah, a white robe or thawb in light brown overtones covering a pair of black pants and brown sandals. Obama’s taqiyah covered a turban that showed his ear prominently unlike Middle Eastern Arab turbans that cover their ears. Moreover, his thawb length is midway between the knee and the ankle which reflects an orthodox Muslim dress code. Obama is also shown doing a knuckle greeting with his wife Michelle that â€Å"Fox News’ E. D. Hill calls a ‘terrorist fist jab’†¦ [that is] †¦usually seen used by other prominent terrorists†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (The Acropolis). Meanwhile, Michelle Obama was shown in an afro hairstyle, a black blouse, camouflage pants and combat shoes. She also has a bandolier and a grayish-greenish, banana-type assault rifle slung at her back. The rifle looked much like an AK47 variant without the AK’s trademark brown, wooden stock. Barrack and Michelle stood at the oval office in a happy demeanor. Barrack was portrayed with his usual serious, but smiling face while Michelle’s smile was more obvious that revealed her prominent cheekbones in a blush. Michelle stood by the left side while Barrack stood by the right side. At Barrack’s back is a golden framed half-faced portrait of Osama Bin Laden in pure white cap and robe and just below the portrait is a fireplace showing the American flag with flames but not yet burnt. The New Yorker’s cover page certainly had shock value yet after careful thought and research, the illustration was really a satire rather than a racist statement. According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, a satire is â€Å"a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn; and trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly† (â€Å"satire†). The Encyclopedia Britannica further elaborates that a satire is an â€Å"artistic form, chiefly literary and dramatic, in which human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, parody, caricature, or other methods, sometimes with an intent to inspire social reform† (â€Å"satire†). Racism, on the other hand, is â€Å"a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race; and racial prejudice or discrimination† according to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (â€Å"racism†). Racism is further elaborated as â€Å"any action, practice, or belief that [says]†¦that humans are divided into separate and exclusive biological entities†¦[and that]†¦a causal link between inherited physical traits,†¦personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural behavioral features†¦[make]†¦some races†¦innately superior† than others by the Encyclopedia Britannica (â€Å"racism†). As a satire, the illustration has a meaning behind it and should not be taken literally as what it is shown. However, some people will easily take the meaning of the illustration as a racist statement and think that the artist, Barry Blitt, thinks Barrack Obama and Michelle are not worthy to lead this country. The New Yorker Magazine has been published since February 21, 1925 and is sold nationwide. Its format deals with political commentary and cartoon covers that are somewhat ‘unreal’ yet funny. It is also quite proud of its Cartoon Bank and â€Å"sells prints of†¦cartoons and covers†¦Ã¢â‚¬  A quick view on the contents of its July 20, 2009 issue show some topics as follows: a) Hendrik Hertzberg on Sarah Palin; b) John Colapinto on Senator Al Franken; and c) Elizabeth Colbert on America’s obesity problem, to name a few. The Obama cartoon was published on July 21, 2008 right at the heat of the US Presidential Election campaigns. Various rumors during that time have circulated accusing Barrack Obama as a â€Å"‘radical Muslim’ who ‘will not recite the pledge of allegiance’† (Snopes. om, â€Å"Barrack Obama†) and have sworn in on the Quran as Minnesota Representative Keith Ellison did (The Acropolis) (Snopes. com, â€Å"Who is Barrack Obama†). Issues also included President Barrack Hussein Obama Junior’s middle name ‘Hussein’ which was associated with former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein (Snopes. com, â€Å"Who is Barrack Obama†). Moreover, Obama’s wife, Michelle, was not spared from close public scrutiny. Her undergraduate thesis at the Princeton University in 1985 with the statement â€Å"blacks must join in solidarity to combat a white oppressor† has been quoted out of context (Snopes. om, â€Å"Michelle Obama’s Thesis†) and detractors have associated such statement with Black Panther Party for Self Defense political activist, Angela Yvonne Davis (Davis). The State of California charged Davis as an accomplice to conspiracy, kidnapping, and homicide for the shotgun registered to her name that killed Judge Harold Haley in an escape attempt of the ‘Soledad Brothers’ that the Black Panthers supported (Davis). Davis has been acquitted then she temporarily re located to Cuba before going back to the United States and ran as a candidate for the Communist Party USA (Davis). With these rumors, the Blitt cartoon cover for the New Yorker can now be more easily understood. Obama has been dressed as an orthodox Muslim to depict rumors about him as an Islamic radical. In addition, since Obama has been educated in Indonesia as a kid, his Muslim attire closely resembled Indonesian Muslim dress codes rather than the Middle Eastern Muslims’. Accusations against Obama for his ‘unpatriotic behavior’ have also been symbolized by the American flag thrown into the flames of the Oval Office’s fireplace. Michelle has also been portrayed in an Afro hairstyle that was synonymous to Angela Davis. Moreover, since Davis had ties to Cuba, Michelle was dressed as a Revolutionary in camouflage pants with an assault rifle at her back that looked like an AK47—a popular symbol among Communist revolutionaries. It can now also be easily discerned why Osama Bin Laden’s portrait was in the backdrop. First, Obama sounded like Osama. Second, Obama’s middle name ‘Hussein’ is the same as former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein’s. These two world figures tied Obama to the rumors that Barrack was a Muslim extremist. As John Aravosis of Weblog described the cartoon: â€Å"†¦New Yorker thinks it’s funny to make Mrs. Obama some radical black panther, Barrack Obama basically a terrorist†¦and they’re even burning the American flag in the Oval Office†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Stirland). The New Yorker cover on Barrack and Michelle Obama is a satire for the following reasons: a) the magazine has a reputation for satirical cartoons portraying political issues and personalities; b) the artist, Barry Blitt, is a known satirist and has made statements on the issues and rumors surrounding Obama; and c) the cartoon or artwork itself is full of symbolisms that convey irony and sarcasm. Following the same track, Blitt’s illustration is really not a racist statement against Barrack Obama because the New Yorker is a liberal, cosmopolitan publication and the symbolisms of the cartoon show otherwise. A quick look into the New Yorker archives show that the magazine has been consistent since 1925 on its satire, focus on American politics, and political humor. It has developed its reputation along these lines. In a pro-Obama blog entry in The Acropolis, Dylan the blogger has this to say: â€Å"Obviously, the New Yorker cover was satirical. It also elaborates that: â€Å"Even faithful Fox News watchers will have to see the cover and hear anchors admit that it is a satire—that the images it depicts are making fun of rumors that are not true. † Likewise, in an anti-Obama blog entry in the ‘Old Atlantic Lighthouse’ notes: â€Å"The New Yorker Magazine†¦is now in full retreat mode to say it was simply mocking Christianity, Israel, America, the West, white people, the Constitution, self rule, and the resistance to Islam. Most of all, New Yorker editor, David Remnick, explained the controversial cover: â€Å"The idea is to attack the lies and misconceptions and distortions about the Obama’s and their background and their politics† (Stirland). Also, Barry Blitt is a known satirist. He has nine illustrations in the New Yorker with the title â€Å"The Politics of Satire. † He has also made statements about the cover like: â€Å"I think the idea that the Obamas are branded as unpatriotic in certain sectors is preposterous,† and â€Å"It seemed to me that depicting the concept would show it as the fear-mongering ridiculousness that it is. Most of all, his illustration is titled:  "The Politics of Fear. † The title alone that Blitt has coined on his work conveys a message that certain politicians are playing on people’s fear that Obama was black, a Muslim, a terrorist and unpatriotic. Most importantly, the illustration was a satire because the artwork itself is full of symbolisms that convey irony and sarcasm. One, the Obamas were smiling. Two, Barrack’s thawb is not pure white unlike Osama Bin Laden’s pure white cap and robe at the backdrop portrait. A pure white cloth has unique symbolisms in the Islamic faith. Three, Michelle crossed her legs while standing up as if crossing her fingers in wishful thinking. Four, the assault rifle’s color did not really feel like the real AK47 with a brown, wooden stock and wooden barrel encasement. Finally, although the American flag was in the fireplace with flames, the flag was not in flames and is not burning. The flag stayed whole and was not even partially consumed by fire. Nevertheless, some people disagree and contend that the cover was an insult and racist. Jane Hamsher of FireDogLake observed: â€Å"†¦Most people who see this cover are just going to see the image of Obama in a turban. It reinforces a critical piece of misinformation that right wing propagandists have advanced in order to poison the political climate in this country and make it that much more difficult for a person of color to be elected president†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Stirland). Roger Simon noted: †It probably doesn’t encourage people to vote for him in America today. (Stirland). Likewise, John Aravosis of Weblog said: â€Å"†¦Is the New Yorker so out of touch that they don’t realize that much of America, or at least too much of America, harbors these very concerns about Obama and his wife? † (Stirland). Finally, Matt of The Acropolis, sarcastically observed: â€Å"†¦I’ve heard so many students at MSU tell me, ‘Aw, come on, man. Ever yone knows that guy’s a freaking Muslim. ’ Ok, maybe it was only, like two students, but I’ve heard even more adults say the same thing. It’s truly insane. † In conclusion, Blitt’s cartoon cover of The New Yorker magazine is a satire. The magazine is widely known for its criticisms and satires and literary views on social and political issues. This cartoon is not the first satire that The New Yorker had published or Blitt created. The magazine had no bad intentions for Obama’s political career or his personal life. The New Yorker was just trying to make business and doing what they were known for. Perhaps people should look more closely before making a judgment when they see something out of the ordinary.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Strategic operations issues and Lean Synchronisation

INTRODUCTION:Lean synchronisation is an emerging practice that seeks to streamline the ‘flow of products and services’ in order to eliminate waste (Slack et al. 2012 p. 352).The aim of this paper is to identify the strategic operational issues in relation to A&B Partners (a law firm referred to as â€Å"A&B†), more specifically with the process of signing out mail, which is referred to in Figure 1.1 below.The paper has three sections. Firstly, the definition of lean synchronisation (referred to herein as â€Å"LS†) will be defined, especially within the service industry, followed by outlining the current process of signing out mail at A&B. By analysing the existing procedure in the context of lean synchronisation, the paper will highlight the delays and imperfections of the existing procedure, as well as provide recommendations to improve the process in order to improve the five performance objectives.WHAT IS LEAN SYNCHRONISATION?LS is a process of producti on with the ‘aim of achieving a flow of products and services that always delivers exactly what customers want, in exact quantities, exactly when needed, exactly when required, and at the lowest possible cost’ (Slack et al. 2012 p. 358). It has successfully been implemented in such corporations as Toyota and the Bolton Hospitals National Health Service Trust. Both examples aim ‘to achieve perfect synchronisation through smooth and even flow’ (Slack et al. 2012 p. 358). It is important to note that LS cannot be achieved overnight, but it is a continuous process and should serve as an objective that managers should incessantly strive for (Slack et al. 2012 p. 353).Given that LS requires the co-operation of everyone involved in the process and the supply network, there needs to be transparency and communication between everyone involved, especially those involved with the operational components of the process and/or supply network (Jullien & Tjahono 2009 p. 32 5). The goal of LS is to open up the work process and abolish the usual hierarchies of traditional management to provide ‘smooth, uninterrupted flow without delay, waste or imperfection of any kind’ (Slack et al. 2012 p. 359).Whilst the idea of LS is well established in the manufacturing sector, the benefits of implementing the philosophy to the service industry can achieve equally valuable results. (Jullien & Tjahono 2009 p. 321). Pixar Animation Studios adopted Toyota’s approach to management and it has resulted in being a leader of computer graphics in filmmaking (Slack et al. 2012 p. 373).The encouragement of continuous advice and criticism from its creative teams, brings problems to the surface before it becomes and crises and affects the overall operation (Slack et al. 2012 p. 373). By encouraging open communication during LS the responsibility for solving the problem is now shared with everyone, ‘improving the chances of the problem being solved†™ in the most efficient and cost-effective manner in order to reply to the customer’s needs and demands (Slack et al. 2012 p. 355).  A & B PARTNERSA & B Partners (â€Å"A&B†) is a specialised insurance and commercial litigation law firm. The objectives of the business are to be the leader in the area of  insurance law, more specifically motor vehicle insurance, public liability and home insurance. The firm acts for various insurance companies and there is often a panel of law firms acting for these insurance companies.Whilst in most law firms there is only one client, in insurance litigation there are various stake holder interests to weigh up. There is the insurance company (â€Å"Client†) who insures the insured (â€Å"IO†) or the insured’s company, motor vehicle or home, the shareholders of the Client and upholding the Client’s obligations to the Insurance Commission Board, to which it is a signatory to. Weighing up these interests is sometimes a difficult and, often, a contradictory juggling act, which is made even more difficult with the solicitor’s obligation to the firm, his/her budget, the impact of settling one file affecting another file with the same opposition, complying with one’s obligations with the Legal Services Board and a solicitor’s primary duty to the court as an officer of the court, which overrides every other obligation.In insurance litigation, more specifically, in motor vehicle insurance, there are often the same law firms within the â€Å"game†. However, occasionally the other driver involved in the accident (â€Å"TPD†) chooses not to go through their insurance company and either goes through another law firm or a recovery agent law firm who specialises in issuing against insurance companies or choses to be unrepresented. Therefore, you often have more multiple matters against any one firm at the one time and, hence, how you interact with that firm on one matter will most likely influence how settlement negotiations will be dictated in another.Because of the contract A&B has with the client, all new files must be actioned within 48 hours. This is high volume, low variety work which often sees a solicitor handling 100- 115 files. The main principles are: – provide concise, practical and commercially focused advice – proactively manage all disputes– resolve disputes at the earliest possible opportunity – build long term client relationship – deliver value for moneyBecause A&B is often part of a panel of firms that continuously have to re-submit tenders every 5-7 years, it is competing with other firms to provide the best service. This is measured but to key performance indicators: 1. Total days it took to resolve the matter; and2. Recovery/Settlement rate (how much the client spent on legal costs compared to how much was recovered or how much was paid out to the TPD).MAIL SIGNINGGiven the main KP I’s are total days turnover and recover/settlement rates, speed and accuracy of advice is important. Law is often a game of chess. Even though most matters follow the same formula there is often one detail that can change the solicitor’s strategic approach to the whole matter and anticipating the other solicitor’s move will determine your next action. Because A&B is well regarded nationally as being one of the foremost leaders in its field, ensuring every document that leaves the firm from all 20 plus solicitors are consistent and align with the objectives of the firm, the client and the insured is important. This has resulted in a policy that all outgoing mail/documents must be signed off by a Partner.There are two Partners that are in charge of the motor vehicle team which consists of twelve Solicitors. Throughout the day solicitors place their completed correspondence in a designated pile in the respective partner’s office. Because each solicitor handl es files from more than one jurisdiction, often the solicitors have to drop off correspondence in both partner’s office. At approximately 3pm the process of mail signing and discussing any issues or problems with files commences. This is often a long and arduous process, eating into valuable billing time of the solicitors and partners, who also have 100 plus files of their own they are running.A minor mistake in a letter, for example an incorrect spelling of someone’s name, will result in the mail not being signed out and having it be  forwarded back to the solicitor’s secretary for amending. By the time it returns to the solicitor to give back to the partner, it is the end of the business day, mail people have gone home or worse, the designated partner has left for the day and the letter must be re-amended to change the date to the next business day. What may be a simple task of forwarding documents to another party in the proceedings has taken more than two days to complete. Figure 1.1 is a process flow map of the procedure.PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE OF THE CURRENT SYSTEMThe aspects of the current mail signing procedure do not comply with all of the performance objectives of A&B.QualityThe quality of work is high as most letters are of similar standard and style. Whilst most of the documents conform to some type of readymade precedent on the system, many do not. Furthermore, the precedents are often out of date and do not correspond with costs allowed by the court. Additionally, numerous new cases have been handed down, which contradict the precedent letters regarding advice on liability and apportionment of costs. Even though the decisions in these cases are not upheld strictly in the local court and the courts of similar jurisdiction in other states and territories, it does add to the persuasiveness of one’s argument.SpeedAs previously stated one of the KPI’s is the total amount of days the matte was open with the firm and h ow long it took to resolve the matter Therefore, timing is crucial. It is generally a rule that all matters be issued or actioned within 48 hours of the files being received by the firm. However, one to two days are lost at the beginning with the claims department printing the file, and forwarding the said file to a partner who then allocates it to a solicitor. If, in the unlikelihood, the file contains all the documents needed to be actioned, it will still take a further two days at best to send out the first letter due to the backlog of dictation waiting to be typed up by the secretaries (at this stage, the ratio of secretaries to solicitors is 1:2.5), checked by the partner and ready to be sent out on  the first attempt. Within the first week of receiving the file, the file is sitting idle in a partner’s office or in a dictation line for at least half of the time.DependabilityWhilst every attempt is made to respond to a client’s request within 48 hours, it is diff icult with the amount of file load a solicitor has and the amount of â€Å"urgent† matters that need to be actioned that very day. As every solicitor’s schedule is difference, (i.e time or hearings and amount of hearings) it is difficult to provide a guaranteed response time across the whole firm.FlexibilityA&B values its relationship with its clients. Ensuring that we are able to provide general advice that we do not bill for, whilst performing the billable work is essential in ensuring A&B maintain client relationships as contracts must be re-tendered every 3-5 years. It is this â€Å"extra-value service† that sets A&B apart from the competition. Often it involves dropping whatever billable task is being performed and providing the client with a comprehensive researched advice based on current law and trends in a particular jurisdiction by the close of business that day or the next morning.CostDue to the highly competitive nature of the market, A&B have been t he leaders in introducing a fixed fee pricing framework. If a matter only gets to a certain stage, A&B will only charge a pre-determined amount no matter how many phone calls/letters were drafted or how much work was required. This has reduced the time solicitors spend on costing a file and it also forces the solicitor to adopt lean processes to ensure maximum results with minimum effort.Discounts are provided if the matter has not been finalised within a required time and if the settlement/recovery rate is not achieved. Conversely, solicitors are entitled to charge an uplift if matters are finalised within  the agreed time frame and the recovery/settlement rate is achieved. The days of putting certain files in the â€Å"too hard† basket and waiting for schedules to slow down are gone due to this new pricing framework.LEAN SYNCHRONISATIONThe rigidity of conforming to a certain style of writing affects the dependability, speed and, ultimately, the cost of the performance obj ectives of A&B. Not enough training is provided to new solicitors as to the â€Å"A&B way† of drafting and negotiating. Furthermore, the knowledge and experience of the partners are vital to the solicitor’s application of the law to current files. Seeing each solicitor individually and having to wait until mail signing time to request guidance does not assist with the firm’s objective of providing quick and efficient legal solution as it adds to the waste of irregular flow (Slack et al. 2012 p. 360).Given the new pricing framework, the importance of lean synchronisation has never been more important. The goal for all solicitors is to provide advice that will ensure an excellent recovery/settlement rate and quick resolution of the matter. With difficult files that do not fit the established precedent letters, advice from the partner’s is essential. However, as stated above, waiting until mail signing time is not ideal as there are often other solicitors ne eding their mail signed out and often there will be corrections that need to be made.Often making an appointment the next available business day is required to go into depth the theory behind certain legal principles as well as formulating a response that â€Å"fits† the intended audience as writing to a client differs greatly to writing to other firms and there is even a difference in the style of writing depending on who the law firm is.Often the Partner’s do not understand why things have taken as long as it has due to non-transparency and non-communication between the different processes; 1. The amount of dictating the secretaries have to type; 2. The file load of the solicitor; 3. The amount of extra research the solicitor is doing that is unable to be billed; 4. The insufficient claims documents  being supplied by the Client and, therefore, the amount of time spent chasing the client or IO for additional information; and 5. The amount of time wasted whilst bein g on hold with the Client to seek further instructions. All of the above factors contribute to waste on a file that is simple and straight forward. Files that are complex are expected to take longer as it often needs to be explained to the Client and IO in more detail.RECOMMENDATIONS Given the word limit only two recommendations will be outlined briefly.DECREASE FILE LOAD OF THE PARTNERS Within the legal field imparting one’s experience of a certain judge, opposition or client is just as important as one’s knowledge of the principles of the law. Knowing the credibility of your own client will be a major deciding factor of any case. The wisdom and experience of a partner is vital. Therefore, the Partner’s should assume more of a mentor role and harness their time to teach the solicitor’s the skills they have acquired throughout their careers.In time this knowledge can be passed on to the Senior Associates who can then share the responsibilities of signing out mail of the other solicitor, as well as aiding the solicitors with any queries. Access to knowledge and guidance will be readily acceptable, therefore, reducing the waiting time and delays between activities.REGULAR SOLICITORS MEETINGS Conducting regular solicitors meetings of 4-5 solicitors where each solicitor raises any problems they have with a file or a particular process (i.e secretarial support is spread to thin) can serve two purposes; 1.It communicates any processes to senior management that is not working on an operational level; and 2.It encourages solicitors to work together to resolve â€Å"problem files† whilst allowing greater access to knowledge from other solicitor’s successful (not so successful) negotiating techniques, approaches, legal strategy etc†¦ In time the solicitors will have confidence  in their ability to provide correct legal advice that the inefficient process of mail signing will be eradicated for experienced solicitors.7. CON CLUSIONBased on the analysis above, we can conclude the current mail signing process is time consuming and involves unnecessary processes that can eradicated completely or modified to increase the time available the solicitors can bill the client for. Eventually, the aim of adopting LS processes should be to increase access to information, whether that is recent trends in specific courts to theoretical knowledge of the legal principles so as to avoid the current bottleneck system. Partner’s should assume more of a mentor role and harness their time to teach the solicitor’s the skills they have acquired throughout their careers. Access to knowledge and guidance will be readily acceptable, therefore, reducing the waiting time and delays between activities

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Athletics In MacGregors Sporting Landscape

However, using tactics which corroborate teamwork and competitive factors which in theory will motivate students to strive and increase their participation levels. 1. 0 Introduction This report will provide a detailed analysis of the participation of athletics in Macgregor’s microcosm as the societal norm believe that the status quo is â€Å"uncool†, it is known that the position of Australia’s porting landscape is very weak as there is a lack of participation within Australia as a whole This can be answered by a simple formula created to find the reason why some sports have a lack in participation in mainstream society today, Figueroa’s framework, this formula is divided into Levels listed in the following Cultural, Structural, Institutional, interpersonal and individual levels, nonetheless, it Is concluded that it is up to the individual of whether they decide to participate in Athletics or not. 2. 0 Figueroa’s Framework The social factors that influence an individual’s decision to participate in Athletics may indirectly or directly impact them by shaping their values, attitudes and beliefs. Knowing this the individual may find themselves being subjective to the people and also the certain factors they face in society ranging from cultural differences to peers to themselves. Sociologist, Peter Figueroa, develop a framework that analyses the equity of social resources that can also be implemented into the participation of athletics. . 1 Individual Level It can be argued that when it comes to equity and access issues, the individual level is the most important. This is because, while all levels of Figueroa’s Framework can identify how equity and sporting opportunities are presented to an individual, in the end it is the individual’s choice that will determine his or her access and level of participation in physical education. Kiss, 2012) This level is specific to Macgregor’s sporting landscape as it highlights the lack of participation in students; nonetheless, these decisions about sport and physical activity are ultimately made by the individuals Gen es, values, attitudes and personalities which are specific to each individual. 3. 0 Action plan In Macgregor’s deteriorating athletics program, the lack of participation in the carnivals can link to many reasons why they don’t compete in such events. Study shows that the majority of students would prefer to sit and chat with their friends instead of competing in athletics, however, to allow students to participate, an action plan was developed to; in theory create a more fun and enjoyable carnival thus increasing participation levels, using successful methods utilized in Australian sports such as Cricket, NRL, AFL, etc. The ideologies used within these sports can be integrated within the society of Macgregor’s microcosm shaping the status quo of Macgregor’s Athletics program in a more positive, enjoyable way. . 1 Justification of Action plan Throughout sporting history there are various techniques to strive for in order to have a successful carnival, the majority of successful sports share many similar techniques to better improve the participation of athletes in Australia such as making it more interactive for the audience thus improving their participation rates; for example, in tennis they implement a board that measures the speed of the serve for each game as well as the Olympics which show the world record for each event. nowing this; a supposed board that lists all the records of each event is shown publically pre-athletics carnival and during for students to observe and in theory become more motivated and strive to train and compete in the events believing they are able to break that record thus improving participation rates. Secondly, the appearance of famous sporting athletes have known to improve the participation of sports for example, NBA players frequently appear in many occasions of street basketball games as it obviously creates publicity, however, also improves the participation due to the fact that this allows the ‘average basketball fanatic’ who normally would watch their idol from the comfort of their own television, but in fact they are able to play side by side with their idol increasing their moral and motivation to play. This can also be implemented in the athletics carnival by having the famous athlete participate and motivate the students to join in and also create a slight sense of competition. Finally, it is a fact that Australians love to play team based sports as listed, AFL, Cricket, Football, NRL, Soccer, Basketball, Rugby League are in the top 10 Australian sports; this is 7 of the 10 sports that are shown. With this in mind, Students would be required to form groups of 3 and compete in the athletics carnival, with a twist; each event would hold a certain amount of points varying on the position the student places, 10points for 1st, 7points for 2nd, 5point for 3rd and participation will be worth 2 points. The team that scores the highest points will be rewarded with a prize, such as vouchers, etc. 4. 2 Links to survey results The action plan created was based on a census of the whole school to observe whether they would participate in athletics and their reasons to not. To justify the particular choices created in the action plan by showing the statistics which have guided the development as the spikes in the statistics assist in improving the participation by surveying the trend. The reason a record chart was implemented as it adds a competitive flair and students receive social rewards within the athletics carnival as 19% of students feel that there is no reward for students if they win the events, this will help students strive for the record instead of just trying to win. A massive 27% of students feel that they are not good enough for the athletics carnival and believe there is no point to participate and simply just socialize with their peers, with the appearance of a famous athlete; students would be motivated to part take in the events as the special guest can provide moral support and advice to improve their technique, etc. during the carnival as they can join in with the students. By creating team based events the 80% of students that prefer team sports are able to participate and at the same time fill the social void according to the 25% as they strive to motivate fellow teammates and allow each other perform better overall, also considering the 66% that would participate in the carnival if their peers were to join in. (Buckley, et al, 2013) 4. Links to research material including the individual level of the framework The research gathered of Figueroa’s framework on the individual level, it is realised that students values and beliefs are to strive for competition and rewards, as these factors have been fulfilled it will allow students to participate in a more enjoyable way, due to the fact that an individual’s values and beliefs reflect directly upon their parents, siblings and peers, however, it is proven that the individual learns to behave through the experience they have accumulated from mainly their peers, also the fact that students view the sports society in a ‘boring’ manner, they often assume they cannot socialise with their peers which majorly affect their participation rates. 5. 0 Conclusion

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Cadbury Schweppes Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Cadbury Schweppes Management - Case Study Example In these days, cocoa beans were being imported from south and Central America and West Indies. In fact the cocoa beans had so much value and were expensive. It could only be afforded with the wealthy and elite people of the society then. Experimenting with his pestle and mortar, John Cadbury produced a range of cocoa and chocolate drinks with the latter having sugar (Cadbury, 2008). In 1861, John Cadbury the founder handed over the business to his eldest sons Richard and George. It is to their leadership that the success of the Cadbury Brothers limited is owed. In 1899 the business became a private limited company and was branded Cadbury brothers Limited. The growth of the business led to invention of the chocolate bars which were now spiced up with milk The first milk chocolate that was ever made was course, dry and neither sweet nor milky enough for the public taste. At the same time, there was great competition from other continental manufactures of chocolate which led to the need of the Cadbury Company to launch other tastes and variety of chocolates one of them being dairy maid which later became dairy milk and finally evolved to be branded Cadbury dairy milk, which has a unique flavor and smooth. Cadbury Brothers limited later merged with Schweppes Inc in 1969 to form Cadbury Schweppes plc which is a confectionery and Beverage Company that processes non alcoholic beverage. It has an employee base of approximately 59000. Cadbury Schweppes Plc currently has its headquarters in Berkeley Square, London which is in England in United Kingdom. Cadbury Schweppes plc is principally involved in the manufacture, distribution and sale of branded beverages and confectionery, in addition to other related foods. It supplies its products through wholesale and retail outlets of the confectionery which are licensed and registered by the state in which they are located. Cadbury Schweppes plc trades in almost all the countries that are available worldwide because contemporary knowledge, it is one of the leading chocolate producers world wide. Cadbury Schweppes plc markets a range of chocolates, gum and sugar confectionery brands worldwide. These brands are in the form of bars, blocks, bagged pr oducts, packets, rolls, boxed assortments, chocolate eggs and novelties (Cadbury, 2008). There are various myths which have been propagated about management which are supposed to help organizations increase their earnings. Myths in the business arena usually come up as managers try to find ways to survive in the business world which is usually full of challenges and uncertainty. They provide some kind of hope as they provide something that managers can hold onto as they run their businesses. These myths usually influence the way companies make decisions and the way management run firms as much as the strategies have not been proved to be true. These myths help managers come up with a set of policies or strategies that they employ in order to help their organizations achieve certain objectives. Some of these myths according to Foss (2006) include the fact that it is harder to acquire a competitive edge if a company uses outside resources or resources it has purchased instead of using internally produced resources. The root cause of this misunderstanding cropped up from Co ol and Barney argument that only resources that cannot be sold by the company are considered to be valuable. Cadburys has not

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding Research Paper

Management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding - Research Paper Example The management aspects appear to be directed at healthcare workers rather than patients. For instance, the article elaborately explains how scoring systems for AUGIB work. It also presents initial resuscitation processes and drugs used before enodoscopy. This information is largely useful for healthcare workers rather than AUGIB patients themselves. The article is crisp in terms of language and detailed in terms of information. Overall, the article is very informative for healthcare workers involved in the management of AUGIB. The article vaguely relates to clients with a GI bleed and cannot be used as a patient hand out. The language and medical terminology employed in the article is too complex for a lay person to understand. As already stated, the information provided by the article is helpful for healthcare workers and not for patients themselves. The article talks less about how an ordinary person can manage the illness and more about the medical interventions and management processes applied. The only section that could benefit patients is that of risk factors for AUGIB. These however are not helpful in management of the illness. The article discusses medical procedures for management of variceal and non-variceal bleeding, which are difficult for patients to understand. For instance – For oesophageal varices, variceal band ligation using elastic rubber bands (Figure 1) has been shown to be superior to sclerotherapy (i.e. the injection of sclerosing agent—similar to treatment of haemorrhoids) (Laine and Cook, 1995; Lo et al, 1997). If banding is sub-optimal or cannot be achieved, then sclerotherapy may be considered (Jalan and Hayes, 2000) (Mitra, Marrow and Nayar, 2012, p. 39). A lay person would find it hard to understand procedures such as â€Å"sclerotherapy† and terminologies such as â€Å"comorbidities†, â€Å"resuscitation†, â€Å"proton pump inhibitors (PPI)†, â€Å"aetiology†, etc. Patients would have been able to

Monday, August 26, 2019

Globalization And Fashion Merchandising Assignment

Globalization And Fashion Merchandising - Assignment Example Globalization is easy for some parts and very hectic for others, simply because of the gaps in the different economies, levels of technology and other factors such as state regulations. All the same, Globalization in fashion is an aspect that most states advocate for as a catalyst for their economy especially because the media has made everything easier. Every section of the media has information on fashion from music videos to the internet; most of them apply as marketing strategies and source of knowledge on fashion trends and the international market, at large. StrengthsGlobalization has made it easier for everyone in the fashion business especially in terms of accessing material and other necessities that were initially hard to find. For instance, textile producers import products at fair prices because it is a market with augmented attention from different dominant states on a global scale. Apparel firms have branches in multiple countries creating job opportunities and getting readily available labor at reasonable payments; obviously, with such connections and relationships, transnational companies continue to develop at an impressive pace. Retailers also benefit for globalization in unimaginable ways; for instance, they initially visited foreign countries in search of materials giving them knowledge on fashion to a point that they are able to predict trends. In leading states, most retailers multitask and have private labels that give them an economic advantage on local and international levels.

Mobile telephone networks Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Mobile telephone networks - Assignment Example 2 Advantages of Communication Networks for Students The cell phone is a conventional way of communication and precisely efficient for student to participate in after school activities. The lectures and classes sometimes consume more time as expected. Students can inform their parents for being late. However parents can also call anytime to their children. 2.1 Safety For security purposes, cell phones play a vital role to ensure student safety. However if the crime rates are extremely low, there is still a slight danger and complete safety is not assured. There may be other causes which may need urgent attention. For example there may be emergency situations, health problems which may need immediate communication. Mobile phone is the only source of communication for students to communicate directly to their guardians and colleagues. 2.2 Long Distance Communication There are some students who come to study from places which are usually far away. Their relatives and families reside on l ocations which are too far. Cell phones again play a vital role and become the only source of immediate communication with the love ones, parents and family members. Parents are worried for their children because they are far away and needs to be kept in touch at all times. Parental communication keeps the parents and guardians updated about their student welfare. Constant communication makes the parents feel more secure and satisfied. 3 Disadvantages of Mobile Networks for Students There are also several disadvantages of using cell phones as a student. The misuse of cell phones during lectures or in classes certainly is not helpful for the student to concentrate on the lecture. If the cell phone is not set to ‘silent mode’, an SMS or a call can disturb the whole class. Even the cell phone on ‘Silent Mode’ can disturb the students due to the vibration voice. In the examinations, students can cheat with the help of cell phones. The radio frequency radiation can cause harm to the health in some ways. If the cell phone turns off, parents and relatives become worried and think negatively. 4 Network Comparison Student packages are always designed to cater the requirements of student by providing low cost tariffs. In the UK there are total 7 mobile network operators. Each company is providing different tariffs for student packages. The student packages are designed to provide cheap services which are most widely used in the country. For example, Mobile Internet connectivity, chatting and texting, these are the most common of the lot. The recommendation for selecting any one service cannot be made. As there are different networks providing different facilities and features. Students can select networks according to their requirements. The comparison of the rates and ‘Pay as you go’ services offered illustrated below (, Compare network deals). 4

Sunday, August 25, 2019

CREATE ONE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

CREATE ONE - Essay Example Rhetoric is also used to communicate about the services of the firm, especially special offer. For instance, there is an advertisement about a beer tap takeover. This advertisement says that â€Å"we want you to drink more beer† (Tryst Cafe and Pub). This has two main reasons for use. First, it makes the place look like one place that a customer can have all the fun they intend to have. This goes well with the culture of the area where Tryst is located. This is because Americans are known to be people who like having fun in a great way, without limitation. It also creates the impression that when one goes to spend some good time at Tryst, they will not have to worry about spending too much, they will be able to do s without hurting their pockets and wallets. Word choice has also been utilized to communicate the massage about the brand. The authors of the site try to portray Tryst as a place where anybody who love to have a good time should go. The text also identifies that Tryst is a place that one can get what they want because the products that they serve are not generic but are crafted to meet the needs of each customer. As a result, the author argues that when one goes to Tryst, they are able to express their personality by getting a product that best suits their tastes. Informal language is used in order to meet conform with the fact that Tryst is an informal pace. This is not a legal firm, it is an informal place where people go to lose themselves as they indulge in various fun activities. Because of this, the author then tries to make sure that the language that is used in the website is an informal one so that it goes along with the theme of the business. With regard to the color chosen, there are a number of factors that may have informed the choice of color. To begin with, there is the problem of having to conform to the colors of the business. Every business uses color as a branding tool. For Tryst, it has its own unique colors that define it. In

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Week 12 Real Estate CD Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 12 Real Estate CD - Essay Example Stambosky appealed against the ruling, and by majority, the appellant court denoted that the rumors about the existence of ghosts in the house greatly affected its value. However, the appeal court did not grant any damages to Stambosky in relation to misrepresentation of facts concerning the stature of the house. The court ruled that, it was not the duty of the real estate agent to disclose such information because of the principles of caveat emptor. New York at the time enacted the principles of caveat emptor in its laws (Emanuel, 2006). I agree with this ruling, because the customer should have sought information about the house, before deciding to buy. It was not the duty of the seller to give him such information. However the court ruled in favor of Stambosky regarding the rescinding of the contract (Emanuel, 2006). According to the appeal court, searching the house by the buyer could not reveal the existence of a ghost, and according to the principles of equity, it was prudent to rescind the contract. I agree with this decision because under the principles of caveat emptor, the buyer should have sought information regarding the quality and value of the house. However, it is difficult to identify the existence of ghosts by searching the house and therefore through equity, it is prudent to rescind the house. On this not therefore, the matter of non-disclosure did not sway the court in any

Friday, August 23, 2019

Macroeconomic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Macroeconomic - Essay Example International business is at its zenith when almost all the economies in the globe are open. Business cycles fluctuations are common to almost all the economies in the modern world. This essay will through light on the Global Financial Crisis that had taken place in 2007-2008. The essay will discuss the impacts created by this financial crisis on different economies in the world. This part of the essay will concentrate on the growth of real Gross Domestic Product, inflation rate and unemployment rate in Australia, United States and United Kingdom. Answer 1: Figure 1: Real GDP, Unemployment, and Inflation Rates of U.S. (Source: ABS, 2013; BLS, 2012) The above graph shows the real GDP, inflation rate and unemployment rate in United States. Figure 2: Real GDP, Inflation and Unemployment of Australia (Source: DFAT, 2013; RBA, 2013) The above graph shows the real GDP, inflation rate and unemployment rate in Australia. Figure 3: Real GDP, inflation and Unemployment in United Kingdom (Sourc e: DFAT, 2013; BEA, 2012) The above graph shows the real GDP, inflation rate and unemployment rate in United Kingdom. Answer 2: The above three line graphs show that global crisis has negatively affected all the three economies in the world. It is clearly visible that due to recession in 2007 to 2008, the real GDP of all the three economies has shown a sharp fall in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The recessionary trails in the economy were responsible for the low velocity of circulation of money in the economy. With fall in purchasing powers, the aggregate demand for goods and services has been low in the three nations. Thus, although there has been an overall growth in real GDP but the global financial crisis has lead to a fall in GDP in the short run. The crisis in the economy has reduced both the income and output levels. As a result, the unemployment rates have also augmented. Economic crisis is often associated with inflationary trails in the economy. Scarcity causes price rise in almost all the goods and services. However, with time all these three developed economies are recovering from the extreme crisis. Answer 3: A nation must always formulate policies of growth in a way that helps it to use the benefits of its core competences. In the modern era almost all the countries in the world are open economies. International trade is at its peak. At this juncture it is always advisable for a nation to produce only those goods and services, over which they have competitive advantages. This would help the nation to allocate its resources in an efficient method. While making resource allocations, the state as well as the business enterprises will always find the stock of resources to be scarce, when compared to the demand in the economy. The country in Africa is a labour surplus nation, then the public as well as the private sectors should stress on labour intensive methods of production. However, that does not mean that the nation would not undertake technological inven tions. The state should adopt capital intensive techniques but not at the cost of its labour requirements. Maintaining the labour concentrated methods of production, both public and private sectors of the country would be able to generate more employment for people. A higher employment will increase both income and purchasing power of the people in the country that would ultimately help in raising the aggregate demand of the nation. Rise in aggregate demand will finally help in augmenting the GDP of the country. For economic development, technological inventions are always in race with depletion of national resources. Thus, the government of the country must adopt sustainable technological improvements to protect the rich natural reserves of the nation. As the country concerned has a free or Laissez faire economy, the government should not make unnecessary interventions in the matters of economic affairs because that would involve a fall in the net social welfare. Free forces of mar ket demand and supply should be allowed to set most of the price levels

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Creative writing assignment Essay Example for Free

Creative writing assignment Essay To describe myself in three adjectives, one of the words would have to be that Im ambitious. To be ambitious is to be eager and greatly desirous. For example, I play on an ice hockey team and lots, if not all, are all skating drills where its really tiring, but yet, the day before practices, I am always excited and eager to play the next day, where I no that many other players hate going to practices. Another example would be that I make many goals that I always try my best to achieve which most of the time motivate me to try even harder. For example, at the beginning of grade seven, I made a goal to be on the honor roll while being on as many school teams as possible for each of my years at junior high, and I achieved that goal with flying colors. This year, my goal is to make it on the honor roll once again and also to be on the junior volleyball school team, and by making that a goal for me, it makes me try even harder to achieve it. The second word I would use to describe myself would be trustworthy. To be trustworthy is to be reliable and to be worthy of confidence. I use this word to describe myself because I am the kind of person that you can trust with anything from something in words or something material. If someone were to tell me something with confidence that I wouldnt tell another person, that someone wouldnt have to worry because I would never break the trust that that someone puts in me. If someone has enough confidence in me to tell me something or ask me to hold something for him or her, it shows me that they have trust in me, to me, that is a big complement, and if I were to break that trust, I would lose that complement forever. For example, my parents trust me enough to stay home alone from time to time, and the only reason they do is because I havent broken their trust before. The third and final word I would use to describe myself is athletic. Unlike the other adjectives I used, athletic is a word that always pops into my head whenever I am asked to describe myself. Although it isnt as deep as the other two, I felt the need to put it as one of my three adjectives because without it, it just doesnt feel like me. The reason I use this word to describe myself is simple, because I play a lot of sports and I enjoy them more then anything. Ive been athletic about all my life, and I feel it is important for everyone to be physically fit especially while youre young, it  makes u feel better about yourself and even has many long term life saving effects.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Human Services Essay Example for Free

Human Services Essay The book, â€Å"Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus† by John Gray, generally, explores the claim that men and women are different and it is this difference that makes relationships fail and/or succeed. Using an allegorical backdrop, he presented his hypothesis by narrating how men originally was from Mars, where, they value success, titles and positions and how women originally was from Venus, where they value relationships, communication and empathy. At a particular point, lives on both planets became meaningless until a Martian glimpsed a Venetian and the Venetians felt loved and cherished, thus, they fitted the gap missing in their lives and opted to live on earth. This story was carefully enhanced as each personality is explored, taking into account their background, their reactions, feelings, expectations as well as coping mechanisms. I can see how positive Gray is, in pursuing his claim, presenting the facts, examples as well as possibilities of the situation. I can also say that most of his concepts are true – that women are indeed very â€Å"emotional† and that men are very â€Å"logical†. On the other hand, this will only be applicable for couples who are willing to make a relationship work. I do not think this will work effectively in a relationship where, let’s say, the man does not understand how a woman think or where a man does not know that women are like â€Å"tides†. I think in the end, women are still going to give – that they will still be â€Å"trapped† in such situation where they have no choice but to give and obliged to understand men. In a way, I don’t like the idea that men fill in the void the women feel when they encounter their down moments. I don’t like the idea that a Venetian is in need of a Martian. Perhaps, I’m just in a rebellious state that I feel that way but I never liked the idea that a woman can’t live without a man in her life. I believe that women are able and are very capable to sustain a living. Such that if a woman is being beaten by her husband, or if a woman is being abused, or if a man validates his vices as a coping mechanism when he is in his cave, the woman has every right to fight back or even leave her husband. She shouldn’t disregard her needs as a woman just because she is waiting for her husband to come out of his cave or have his rubber band pulled back. She shouldn’t let anybody step over her boundaries just because she is naturally, understanding. In the field of human services, the information about men and women will greatly help in dealing with people. It’s hard to separately discuss how acting out, catharsis and repression is related to concepts mentioned in the book so I will be citing possible examples instead. In cases of teenage drug abuse, it is important to trace how it started, or particularly, why it did. Getting these people to talk, be it a man or a woman is never easy. For one, their current coping mechanism may be a result of continuous nurturing of repressed emotions. While time is a big element in these types of situation, using Gray’s concepts teach us to allow them space until they are ready to discuss their issues. Force rarely works in these scenarios, nor is immediate rehabilitation. For youngsters, parents’ participation in this process is very crucial as children may have repressed emotions that need attention. Parents should be educated on â€Å"how to listen† while children will have to be â€Å"advised† on how to â€Å"accept† or â€Å"communicate. † For adults, one’s behavior or treatment greatly matters. Gray’s notes on how to motivate a man or a woman, or encourage them to talk will help in these types of scenarios. In child abuse or rape cases, they say it’s far easier to assign a woman to interview the victims. This is true, because women in general, know how to empathize with the victims as well as understand the situation. Men, normally, try to put on their â€Å"Mr. Fix It Personality† to help a victim feel better – which rarely works and usually pushes the victims into their own comfort zones – choosing not to talk, instead. Gray’s notes on how to make people talk starts from the very basic – being silent and being ready at any time to accommodate the victim. In dealing with the elderly or senior citizens, it will be very different. The provider has to understand that not only does gender matter here but also the psychosocial stage a person is in. Dealing with senior citizens do not constitute a relational aspect, some may even feel insulted if you try to look at it in that perspective. Gray’s ideas in considering the person’s culture (or background) and understanding the person’s individuality (gender and personality) will help in making such relationship fruitful and successful. Health services may seem very specific and require lesser attention or relational aspect. This is true. In a manner of speaking, health provided is based on the results of a test or exam conducted/surveyed on a specific community. On the other hand, some people may refuse to accept help or decline it outright; thinking that they don’t need it or their pride has been insulted. Thus, it is important for health providers to be relational, helping people understand the benefits of the help being provided so that it can be accepted more freely. Imagine, how you can convince a tribe or group to accept vaccine if they had been practicing herbal medicine all throughout their lives? Or how you can convince a community to take advantage of vaccines when their families have opted not to take them for the longest period of time? Although, I believe this is very rare, Gray’s concepts will help a person get acquainted with his/her patients by merely taking into account how men and women vary in reacting to various factors. Knowing that Gray focused on how to make relationships work, it becomes easier to apply his concepts to something general, such as human services – where people deal with other people. Gray’s concepts may even be applied or associated to a group, for Martians did belong to one culture and Venetians belong to another, and very likely, together they share or may have built a different culture too. With this in mind, relating to others will become an everyday adventure, rather than a routinary assumption and prediction of behaviors. It will constitute facts and bases on how personalities can be so similar, yet so different.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Effect of Life Events on Effective Leadership

Effect of Life Events on Effective Leadership Meers study is qualitative in nature. The purpose of his study was to explore how the selected leaders made sense of their experiences by understanding the context of the experiences themselves. It was imperative to the efficacy of his study to understand the perspectives of the leaders as they related their life experiences and what impact they saw these events having on their leadership development. As life experiences are best related in story format, it best served this study for the researcher to utilize personal interviews with participants as the primary method of data collection. The stories that leaders told about their formative life experiences cannot be broken down into easily manipulated variables, but rather must be understood as whole events that carry complex meanings for each individual. As Meers began his study, a theory was not presented for proving or dis-proving, however, in the process of data collection a theory did emerge. This is consistent with the qualitati ve approach and specifically the grounded theory method. Strauss and Corbin (1998) define grounded theory as: theory that was derived from data, systematically gathered and analyzed through the research process (pg. 12). The theoretical framework of how effective leaders learn from significant life experiences developed within this study matches this definition. The situation studied within this project was the significant life experiences of effective leaders with the process being leadership and the phenomenon being how these leaders learned from their respective significant experiences. The exploration of leaders life experiences moved from the specifics of each individuals stories to generalizations that can be applied to the broader area of leadership development. Purpose Statement The purpose of this study was to discover the role that significant life events played in the development of effective leaders. The use of the term significant in describing life events could sound somewhat limiting; however the intent of this study was for participants to define for themselves what a significant life event entails. Utilizing a semi-structured interview process, leaders perceived as being effective were interviewed to explore the meaning they made out of certain life experiences. Through analysis of this information the author attempted to discover common emerging themes which impacted their development. Problem Statements 1) What is leadership? and 2) How do leaders develop? or, From where do leaders come? Alignment of Research Question, Purpose Statement, and Problem Statement The author of this paper believes that the research questions, the purpose statement, and the problem statement are well aligned. First, based on the research question(s), it was critical for the researcher to provide a clear definition of leadership. In doing so, he was able to establish a foundation for his study. Meers study looked at effective leaders. It was critical for Meers to identify what an effective leader is. He did this through his review of literature and the identification of leadership based on a longitudinal study that included theory from numerous pioneers in the field of leadership and organizational studies. Meers also needed to research the foundations of leadership development. Most specifically, it was critical for him to include prior research theories of how a person becomes a leader and how a person develops and refines leadership skill and traits. Meers purpose statement effectively describes the research questions using concise language. Literature Used to Identify Gaps and Tensions within the Literature Meers dissertation includes a comprehensive literature review of prior studies. He began his review by defining leadership, which he accomplished through his own acquired knowledge. After defining leadership, the question (mentioned previously) that then arises is: How are leaders developed? Where do they come from? To answer these questions, Meers looked to the earlier work of Thomas Carlysle called the Great Man theory (Wren, 1995). Meers then addressed the transformation of leadership theory during the mid part of the twentieth century. He relied on the studies conducted by Conger (1992) and Fulmer (1997) who both studied the relationship between leaders and managers and whose work provided Meers with a clear distinction between management and leadership. Fulmers research regarding early leadership training provided Meers with an overview of where the field has been, where it was at the time of his research and where he saw it headed (Fulmer, 1997). The studies conducted by Burns (1978), Greenleaf (1970) and Kegan (1982) provided Meers with further information regarding the transformation of leadership theory. In his seminal work, Leadership, Burns (1978) proposed the idea that there were really two forms of leadership: transactional and transforming (or transformational). Burns (1978) work then encouraged others to begin to think of leadership as different from management, with leadership being much more focused on relationships with followers and particularly on influencing others to achieve common goals. For the purposes his study, Meers did not conduct a thorough analysis of servant leadership and transformational leadership, but instead focused on the impact the articulation and popularization of these forms of leadership have had upon the field of leadership training and development. He looked to the research of Greenleaf for this information. Kegans theory of moral development impacted the world of leadership training and development, mainly by introducing his idea of development. Meers was thorough in his choice to include the work of these three theorists. Meers longitudinal report ends with the contemporary work of Peter Senge (1990) who focused closely on the organization as a learning organization. Meers makes a nice transition from his section on the development of the organization to the actual experiences of leaders and managers and how emphasis has been placed upon learning from work experiences, specifically upon using these experiences as preparation for advancement to higher levels of management or leadership. Again, Meers cited the works of Senge (1990) and Kegan (1982), and also focused on the work of Robert E. Quinn (1996) who explored the importance of personal change in leading organizational change. To further establish the foundation for his area of study, Meers looked to the work of Ronald Heifetz of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University who brought forth the importance of learning from personal experiences and specifically how the reflection on certain experiences has become a part of some executive leadership education programs. A particular method that Heifetz developed and one he uses extensively in his courses at Harvard is the Case-in-point methodology in which students in the classroom bring their experiences to class and in essence become their own case studies (Parks, 2005). Also included in Meers literature review is the qualitative study conducted by Shamir, Dayan-Horesh and Adler (2005) in which they explored the life-stories that leaders tell. The purpose of their study was to extrapolate common themes in the leaders stories that may provide further insight into leadership development. Shamir, et al (2005) made the case that a leaders own story and even how he/she tells it has a strong impact upon how influential they are with their followers. Meers referred to the work of Avolio (1994) whose work, although ground breaking in the area of leadership development impacted by life experiences, was somewhat limited. The purpose of Avolios study was to explore the correlation between certain life experiences and to identify transformational leadership behaviors. Avolio (1994) selected the life experiences he was going to analyze. Meers stated in his dissertation that while this is a legitimate approach to a quantitative study, it limited the choices of the leaders in regard to which experiences they could identify as having impacted their development (Meers, 2009, p. 31). Yet another limitation to the study that Meers reported was in the more narrow focus on identified transformational leaders and especially upon specific transformational behaviors. Avolios study found some correlation between certain experiences and certain transformational leaders but it did not provide a great deal of insight into the general impact of life e vents or experiences upon leadership development (Avolio, 1994). Much like the work conducted by Avolio, Meers looked to a study completed by Bennis and Thomas (2002). Bennis and Thomas identified what they call crucible experiences which they define as those experiences that generally consisted of high stakes and often were tragic in nature. There were also gaps in this study. As with Avolioà ¢s (1994) study, the field was limited as the leaders interviewed seemed more inclined to talk about experiences that they perceived as having an impact directly upon their leadership development. Meers felt that this approach may not have told the complete story regarding development as the participants most likely automatically limited themselves in the experiences they selected as having impacts. Also, Meers felt that the researchers conducting this study failed to identify the meaning of leadership. Due to these limitations, Meers believed that there was room for further research to be conducted with defined leaders and how they perceived they had been impacted by their own significant life events.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Elvis Life :: essays research papers

On a hot Saturday afternoon in the late summer of 1953, a beat up ford pickup truck sat in front of The Memphis Recording Studio, where, anyone for 4 dollars a pop could make themselves a record. The truck driver- an eighteen year old, aspiring country music singer who made only $40 a week as a deliveryman for crown electric had saved up four dollars to sing and play guitar as a late birthday present for his mother. A woman by the name of Marion Keisker made conversation with the young man. â€Å"What kind of singer are you?† She asked him. â€Å"I sing all kinds,† he said. â€Å"Well, who do you sound like?† she asked. â€Å"I don’t sound like nobody,† he replied. â€Å"Do you sing hillbilly?† she asked. â€Å"Yeah, I sing hillbilly,† he said. â€Å"Well, what hillbilly do you sound like?† she asked. â€Å"I don’t sound like nobody,† he said. It was at last the young man’s turn. Ms. Keisker went to the back of the studio to get everything setup and decided to stay back and listen to him sing. For his first number, he chose â€Å"My Happiness,† a popular song sung by the Ink spots, and for the his second number, â€Å"That’s When your Heart Ache Begins.† On both songs he accompanied himself on guitar. While performing his first number Ms Keisker was very impressed and secretly recorded the last part of the first song and all of the second song. The Monday morning she gave the tape to Sam Phillips her boss and president of Sun Records. Phillips was very impressed with the young man’s voice. Who would have thought that this silly little recording would soon make a young man the â€Å"King of Rock N’ Roll!† On January 8, 1935, Gladys and Vernon Presley gave birth to a stillborn to whom they gave the name Jesse and 35 minutes later gave birth to his identical twin Elvis Aaron Presley. Elvis was born in East Tupelo Mississippi and was raised by his mother and father who were extremely over protective of him and taught him to be very well behaved and polite. From a very young age Elvis showed evidence of having an exceptional singing talent. By the age of eight he was singing hymns with his mother and father at camp meetings, revivals, and at the Sunday morning services of the First assembly of God Church.

Moral Law According To Kant Essay -- Morality Ethics Kant Philosophy E

Moral Law According To Kant   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Immanuel Kant was a deontologist from Germany in the eithteenth century. He believed that the only test of whether a decision is right or wrong is whether it could be applied to everyone. Would it be all right for everyone to do what you are doing? If not, your decision is wrong. It would be wrong, for example, to make a promise with the intention of breaking it because if everyone did that, no one would believe anyone's promises. In ethics, Kant tried to show that doing one's duty consisted in following only those principles that one would accept as applying equally to all.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kant objects most of all to the principle that one's own happiness can be the ground of morality. He rejects this possibility because well-being is not always proportionate to virtuous behavior. By this I mean that one manÕs well being is not always universal to all. Most significantly, Kant renounces happiness as the principle of morality because it obliterates the specific difference between virtue and vices.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Universality is the form of a moral law whereby all rational beings are subject to the same condition as the basis of morality. Kant argues that there can be principles for action that do not admit of exceptions, and that this occurs through practical reason. In other words, the possibility for morality does not hinge on the empirical world, but rather is a feature of the nature of the entity that is the ground for morality. Since all rational...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Efficient America: Women, Progressivism, and the New Meaning of Citizenship :: Essays Papers

Efficient America: Women, Progressivism, and the New Meaning of Citizenship The end of the 19th Century brought with it what Woodrow Wilson called, â€Å"a new sense of union,† a cease-fire in sectional political strife that ended a century-long conflict in the United States, but the effects of the Industrial Revolution were already ushering in a new kind of domestic debate. This one would be couched in much of the same rhetoric of rights and equality and freedom that characterized the previous conflict, but it would address not the political functions of the American government, but the scope of its economic authority and what it owed the American people by virtue of that authority. A new national obsession with science and efficiency emerged in tandem with this debate, and the old foundations of the republic began to be evaluated by scientific rather than philosophical or religious standards. Caught in the fray of this conflict were the popular reform movements of the early 20th Century, whose causes came to be viewed in the same economic terms that characterized the major national issues of the day. The women’s movement was among those that exchanged its 19th Century rhetoric of rights based on religion, Enlightenment philosophy, and Constitutional ideals for a platform that emphasized the economic utility of increased rights and a widened sphere for women, and that fell more closely in line with the modern progressive philosophies of pragmatism and scientific rationalism. The emphasis on enhancing national economic productivity by strict scientific divisions of labor, on applying science to the routines of daily life to make it more efficient, more healthy, and more sanitary, changed the meaning of citizenship in America. With the blessings of progressives, the federal government made its first major entrance into the private lives of its citizens—regulati ng industry, economy, and urban life—and in doing so, became a protector of the people from the tyranny of economic power rather than just political power. A citizen became an economic unit, and productivity became linked with patriotism. Women, it came to be argued, should get the vote and should enter the public sphere not to fulfill their duty as political citizens of the United States who needed representation on the grounds that it was consistent with American political ideology, but to become full economic citizens—more efficient producers and workers within their own sections of the public sphere. At the end of the 19th Century, the Seneca Falls approach still garnered recognition but was even then giving way to the new arguments for women’s rights.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Huckleberry Finn vs. Tom Sawyer Essay

Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer are very different characters. I think that is what made them such great friends. Tom is always out to have a good time and doesn’t care who he hurts to do it. Huck always follows Tom’s lead even though sometimes he shouldn’t. Huck Finn grew up in a very rough environment. His father was a drunk who would disappear for months on random occasions. Huck is typically dirty and homeless. Eventually he goes to live with Widow Douglas who continually tries to reform Huck, but he resists and keeps his own ways. He said â€Å"The Widow Douglas she took me for her son, and allowed she would sivilize me; but it was rough living in the house all the time, considering how dismal regular and decent the widow was in all her ways; and so when I couldn’t stand it no longer I lit out. I got into my old rags and my sugar-hogshead again, and was free and satisfied.†(2) Huck is also a follower mostly of his good friend Tom. â€Å"But Tom Sawyer he hunted me up and said he was going to start a band of robbers, and I might join if I would go back to the widow and be respectable. So I went back.† (2) This is really the first time Huck has been educated and is taught about religion. Huck grew up in a much tougher environment then his close friend Tom, but he still has a good heart and was an easy going guy. He says â€Å"We said there wasn’t no home like a raft, after all. Other places do seem so cramped up and smothery, but a raft don’t. You feel mighty free and easy and comfortable on a raft.† (42) Tom is Huck’s best friend. They are about the same age but grew up in completely different situation. Tom grew up in white middle class family in a nice comfortable environment. Tom is clearly the leader of the two because Huck is always following his lead. Huck says â€Å"Tom told me what his plan was, and I see in a minute it was worth fifteen of mine for style, and would make Jim just as free a man as mine would, and maybe get us all killed besides. So I was satisfied, and said we would waltz in on it.† (66) Also Huck says â€Å"Tom Sawyer wouldn’t back out so I won’t.† Another thing that is different is Tom is willing to keep a secret that hurts a lot of people. He knows Mrs. Watson has died, but keeps it a secret for his own enjoyment. He could have told and Jim would have been free, but all he cared about was his plan to escape and how fun it was going to be. You  can clearly see the differences between Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. There are many examples in the book that show that. Tom is the leader and Huck is the follower. The biggest difference is the morals of the two. Tom kept a secret that hurt people and all Huck wanted to do was free Jim. After everything said Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer are best friends. They get along so well and will be friends for life.

Friday, August 16, 2019

On Becoming a Leader Essay

The book I chose to review is â€Å"On Becoming a Leader† by Warren Bennis. At the crux of this book is a search to understand how leaders are made. Throughout the book, the author tries to prove through polls and observations, that leaders are not born but are made through a combination of nature and nurture. Leaders who excel tend to have similar characteristics which have been developed by a series of experiences in their lives (these include embracing mistakes, taking risks and learning from adversity). Another idea discussed in the book is that of the role of education in making leaders. Bennis notes a number of qualities and abilities that are common amongst the leaders he interacts with. Some of those are relating well to others, trusting others and in turn being trustworthy, the ability to motivate people and to not give up, inspiration and competence in the job. However, he claims that a major problem in business & leadership is the â€Å"societal disease of our time† (as said by Norman Lear to him) – short term thinking. He highlights throughout the book that this form of thinking is not beneficial to organizations and that a good leader should be able to look further and not give the short term too much importance. At one point he claims that short term thinking is what kills one of the most important attributes a leader must have – innovation. The author mentions that leaders are important to an organization since they are of paramount importance to the operational performance, stability and integrity of the organization. To this end, Warren Bennis presents in a systematic manner various attributes that are required of a leader to be able to perform well. The first attribute discussed is the ability to â€Å"Master the context†. In this chapter, the author discusses the fact that a leader must be able to understand the reasons and outcomes of different situations. Only once he has managed this, will he be able to act in the best possible way for his organization. This is in line with what we have learned throughout our course regarding improving one’s self-awareness as well as the 4 perspectives of organizational effectiveness. A leader must be able to understand the context of work and respond by being aware that he needs to look after different perspectives of people and systems related to the organization. The second thing discussed is â€Å"understanding the basics†, which is quite similar to mastering the context. In this, Warren Bennis explains that leaders need to understand the underlying concepts at work before making decisions. He lists a series of attributes that can be found in most leaders including self-knowledge, passion, vision and trust. He argues that most of the leaders are not born with these attributes but life experiences and a desire to lead people enables them to develop a good understanding of this. Their drive to acquire and learn are much higher than on average and they actively pursue these drives while taking risks and placing lesser importance on their drive for safety. In this he also discusses the difference between managing people and leading them. We have gone through various topics related directly to this effect in class. According to me, one of the strongest drives an individual has is the drive to safety. An individual would be much more comfortable if they can trust their leader. The ability to understand the thought process of their leader and their belief/trust in him helps shore up their drive for safety. Across cultures, people tend to avoid uncertainty and if a leader is able to, through knowledge and an understanding, provide people with an image of consistency; it goes a long way in settling people and reducing stress. The third lesson is â€Å"knowing yourself†. Warren Bennis argues that in order to lead others, one must fully understand themselves. To be able to trust your decisions/inner feelings is extremely important for leading people and making correct choices. The author goes on to highlight 4 lessons that enable an individual to understand themselves. They are â€Å"you are your own best teacher†, â€Å"accept responsibility†, â€Å"you can learn anything you want to learn† and â€Å"true understanding comes from reflecting on your own experience†. All these lessons are at the core of organizational behavior as we have learnt. These 4 lessons can apply even to organizations as well as being useful for individuals. Self-concept is an important part of an individual’s make up and to feed that we must be able to reflect on our past experiences to learn from them. Social learning, learning through reinforcement and learning through experience are discussed as important factors of learning in organizations in our course. I believe this same applies to individuals as they are able to develop their social identity and self-concept through these lessons. Next, the author discusses â€Å"Knowing the world†. This takes a similar route to the previous subject of knowing yourself, while developing a greater scope to the understanding. Cultural understanding is an extremely important attribute in a leader. In an increasingly diverse workforce coupled with increasing globalization, a leader must have the ability to and desire to understand various cultures and behaviors. Values and behavior are very different for different cultures, and a lot of organizations have failed due to the incompatible understanding of their leaders. The HP-Compaq merger was a major case where while it was beneficial financially and operationally for the companies to merge, their leaders were not able to fully adapt the two company’s cultures properly, causing the merger to have not performed anywhere near expectations. One point that I found particularly interesting and felt that was very important was the need for a person to find a mentor who can help them enhance and shape their cultural understanding. The social learning aspect discusses similar concepts, where a person learns from someone whom they aspire to be. Being able to find a mentor who has an in depth understanding of cultures, or at least has a desire to learn cultural differences can help an individual become a more complete leader. The next thought discussed by the author is â€Å"Operating on instinct†. This discussion focuses on the fact that a good leader should be able to believe in himself and should be able to take decisions from his gut feeling. More often than not a leader and even individuals will have to make decisions without knowing all the details they would like to know. The presence of incomplete information should not make the leader less likely to make a decision. A good leader will have developed enough self-awareness and through self-evaluation and verification be able to rely on his instinct to make the right choice. This enables the leader to be able to quickly and decisively contemplate and decide issues. The next discussion is based on †Deploying yourself†. In this the author talks about the fact that a successful leader is a person who is willing to take on challenges even though he might have failed in earlier challenges. The drive to learn and acquire are, I feel, major contributors to this topic. A good leader will be able to reflect on his past experiences and learn from them; and this gives them confidence to continually drive for newer challenges and tasks. Another topic discussed is â€Å"Moving through chaos†. In this chapter, Warren Bennis describes the difference between all individuals and leaders. He points out that everyone faces problems and issues in their career, but that leaders analyze these problems and tend to learn from these. Conflict resolution can take many forms through third-party conflict resolution or negotiation. Leaders reflect on their conflicts and develop an understanding of how to overcome those challenges. â€Å"Getting people on your side† is the next topic covered. The main point of this discussion, and a very important learning for me personally, is the ability of the leader to be trustworthy. To be trusted, a leader must display consistency in his actions, congruity – meaning what they say, reliable to their followers and have a strong integrity. This once again gravitates towards the drive for safety individuals have. To be lead by someone, an individual must trust them to act on their behalf and be able to predict to a certain extent what their leaders will do for them. The concept of romanticizing leadership is down to this ability of leaders. If a leader is able to bring their employees/followers on their side, the leader’s ability to work through tasks and challenges is increased. Even mistakes made by them will be viewed in a positive light, enabling them to continue taking risks. â€Å"Organizations can help – or hinder† is the next topic that is discussed. This focuses on the fact different organizations will have different expectations from their leaders. The culture at an organization will dictate how well a leader will be able to lead the organization. A good leader will be able to understand the context of the organization and will try to devise strategies he can implement to make changes. The author also mentions that the leader should try and develop organizational characteristics that are in line with their culture. This also transposes into the last discussion of â€Å"Forging the future†. The impediments faced by leaders in an organization can be very hard, but a good leader will be able to develop his own culture and characteristics to move the organization forward. One major issue I had with this book was that while the author continually refers to short term thinking as a â€Å"societal disease†; he himself to a certain extent subscribes to that notion. His interaction with the leaders seems comparatively very short term. Throughout the statements made in the book, it felt that the interviews were more about successful past rather than forward looking. I understand that one of the major attributes is to learn from experiences but the I’d prefer if the author also focused equally on the leader’s thoughts about the future. Secondly I felt that there was quite a bit of political commentary in the book. I knew that it was going to have some after reading the reviews while selecting the book, but the political leadership aspect seemed to be a comparatively one sided. I feel that the author could have refrained from making this political and focused instead on the corporate leadership aspect.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Understanding the Concept and Process of Marketing

Personal Development Plan |Column 1 |Column 2 |Column 3 |Column 4 |Column 5 |Column 6 |Column 7 | | | | | | | | | | | |SKILL |CURRENT |TARGET |DEVELOPMENT |CRITERIA FOR |TIME SCALE |EVIDENCE | | | |PROFICIENCY |PROFICIENCY |OPPORTUNITY |JUDGING SUCCESS | | | | | | | | | | | | |PRIORITY No 1. |Presentation skills |Competent enough for classroom but |Confident classroom |Make a presentation in Dr |Achieve at least a B Grade for my end |By the end of the |See â€Å"Self Assessment Template – | | | |nervous. Not professional standard. presenter |Smith’s tutorial group |of project presentation for Dr Patel |academic year |Presentation Skills† | | | | | | | | | | |PRIORITY No 2. |Written Skills |Technical descriptions ok but lack |Good descriptive writing|Show some of my work to |Achieve a 2. 1 in the Humanities |During my second year |See â€Å"Self Assessment Template – | | | |flair in presenting my â€Å"critical |and satisfactory |College Writing Fellow; | Programme assessments.Writing | |Communication Skills† | | | |thinking† |critical writing |prepare better essays for my |Fellow's opinion. My improved level of| | | | | | | |Humanities class. |confidence as writer. | | | | | | | | | | | | |PRIORITY No 3. Commercial Awareness |Interested in commercial issues, but |Practical knowledge |Participate in an industry |Find ; complete internship programme; |During the Summer |See â€Å"Self Assessment Template – | | | |do not have practical awareness | |summer internship programme |be able to talk † real business† with |Vacation period |Placement† | | | | | | |my tutor | | | | | | | | | | | | |PRIORITY No 4. Team working Skills |Poor – dislike working in teams, hate |Reliable and positive |Become a Student Union |Help organise a Society event; note |During my third year |See â€Å"Self Assessment Template – | | | |trusting my marks to others; hate |team member; competent |Society member; read about |how many of the skills I read about | |Teamwork† | | | |having to compromise my ideas |teamplayer |teamwork |were applied by me. Enjoy the | | | | | | | | |experience. | | | | | | | | | | | |PRIORITY No 5. |Leadership Skills |Lacking in confidence; not good at |Confident leader who can|Volunteer to lead on Spring |Group's satisfaction with me; project |During the Spring Term |See â€Å"Self Assessment Template – | | | |delegating and monitoring. |delegate |term group project. |mark; lecturer's feedback; my level of| |Tutorial† | | | | | | |confidence. | | |

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Lord of the Flies: Savagery vs Civilization Essay

An innocent pig in a jungle nibbles on grass in the early morning. The pig squeals whilst his head snapped off with a boy as its last image it would ever witness. â€Å"He who makes a beast of himself gets rid of the pain of being a man† is a quote which widely relates to the novel, Lord of the flies, and creates a comparison of how it’s like to be civilized and savage. The characters in the story represent the difference between being a beast and being civilized by showing responsibility, coming of age, and rationalism. First of all, responsibility plays a huge role in this story for responsibility resembles a man of civilization and leadership. Being a civilized government is no easy task in comparison to being a savage. Ralph tried to form a government with his reliance to the conch and portrayed responsibility through his willingness to keep everyone together. In the beginning of the novel, Ralph was the boy who maintained order. He does so by using the conch as power to create assemblies and positively mannered conversations. He is a boy who decides from right or wrong and acts upon situations. For example, the littluns could not live on their own and could not feed or protect each other. The littluns soon became scared of the rumour about a â€Å"beast†. With this knowledge, Ralph creates shelters for the littluns to hide. This created a sense of safety and protection. In addition, Ralph demonstrates how he can problem solve as a leader. Jack comes into the picture and takes care of the boys when he fulfills his duty as a leader and decides to hunt for food. Food is a huge priority because the boys were only left to eat fruits from the island which caused diarrhea. With Jack acting like a leader, he decides to hunt animals for food. In short, being a civilized being is no easy task. Secondly, characters in the novel are carefree and free to do what they please. Ralph and the others became the adults and went through the difficult of babysitting everyone to be rescued whilst the rest took the easy path and went to have fun. The boys progressed from being well-behaved, orderly children to blood thirsty hunters. The boys on the island excluding, Ralph, Piggy, and Simon, all did what they wanted to do. They thought of the island as a place for joy and fun. They did what they wanted to regardless of the consequences. For example, the littluns all played in the water and the jungle while Ralph was creating shelters for everyone. Being a leader is not an easy task for not everyone can be expected to fulfill tasks. As mentioned previously, the littluns feared a beast or a monster which they thought had roamed the island. With this in mind, Jack takes complete advantage and decides to use his power to calm the littluns, but what really feared the littluns was Jack himself. The littuns has developed their loss of innocence and have been drowned in fear and follows Jack as a leader. They become carefree and do whatever they want which applies to Jack as well. Jack finds clay ont he island and uses it as a way to cover his face. This is symbolic because the time Jack puts on the mask, he becomes a different person and takes on a different persona. As he put the mask on, he threw away his old self and emotions. He kills Simon and watches the death of Piggy with no shame or guilt. He has permanently changed himself. Therefore, being a savage and following your id is a simple task. Last but not least, the children in the novel showed rationalism and some were fully aware of the predicament they were caught in. As the novel progresses, the majority of the characters lost there viewpoints and completely forgot about the rescue. While Ralph, Simon, and Piggy were working hard on being rescued, Jack became obsessed with the nonsense of hunting and gaining power. Jack chose to do what everyone else wanted to do, and that was to have fun. In the beginning of the novel, Ralph prioritized the rescue and wanted to maintain the fire for outsiders to possible see for rescue. Jack promised to keep the fire going with his hunters, but soon failed to do so when he retreated his group in order to hunt for a pig. He has lost the objectives that he should have achieved. As Piggy was represented as the weak and helpless, yet smart and resourceful, he was the character who was most consumed by the conch. He wanted to maintain order and civilization. Jack also said to follow rules and later on became a hypocrite and backstabbed his own rules. While Jack spent all his time being fixated to hunting, Ralph worked extremely hard into creating shelters for the protection from fear and weather. Jack, on the other hand, has become the fear and uses it to control and kill or witness death of other characters without feeling guilt or negative emotions. Once again, Ralph, the leader, ends up working hard, experiencing the death of others, and sticking through until the very end of the novel. Whilst Jack, the power, ends up losing sanity as well as the rest of the children. Jack is the dictator and gains control of everyone on the island with the exception of Ralph and is followed because it is easier to be with Jack for he has food, fire, and shelters. In conclusion, being a man of civilization must be responsible, have emotions/feelings, and be irrational. These people are bound by rules and what we call being humane. On the other hand, being a savage is far easier for they are able to do whatever their id desires and lives with no guilt by their side. Civilization requires a person to be responsible, be mature, recognize the things that are happening around them, and keep sight of goals. Savages are required to have fun, be free, have no goals or dedication, and have no morals. Perhaps in the future, everyone will become savages and take the easy road.